BUT ah! what glories yon blue vault emblaze?

What living meteors from the zenith stream?

Or hath a rapt'rous dream

Perplex'd the isle-born bard in fiction's


He wakes; he hears; he views no fancied rays

'Tis INDRA mounted on the sun's bright beam;

And round him reveals his imperial train:

How rich their tints! how sweet their strain!


The very idea that some mythological character could have any historicity at all may seem quite ridiculous to many. Though, to the historicist in mythological research, the euhemeristic theory is a viable one!--that the gods and goddesses were originally ancient hero-figures, deified later by their ignorant descendants. (1) Now, in discussing East Indian mythological traditions, one must ask whether the Vedic god, Indra, was a real (super) human being, OR was he only the personified version of a naturalistic element or force in nature? Should one adopt the hypothesis of the naturalistic interpretation or the euhemeristic view that these gods were, in the most ancient past, only hero-figures, human beings?

The choice is ultimately up to the individual, for each will chose according to the way he has been educated. However, in all things and in all situations, there is a dualism--a right way or truth, and a wrong way or falsehood. If one analyzes the evidence, one will find that the answer to the above question is the latter. Dr. Dandekar applied this question to the Vedic hero-god Indra, and through a very lengthy and critical examination of Vedic traditions concluded in favor of the human historicity of Indra. (2) The naturalistic interpretation just did not hold any water, but the Water-God did! In his conclusions, he says:


It may be pointed out that, as against the vague and indefinite

naturalistic elements, the human features in Indra's personality are

so realistic and life-like that one feels inclined unhesitatingly to

accept the latter as more basic and essential. (3)

Indra's appearance and mannerisms are so very distinctively

individual that they seem to have been derived from a specific

human person. (4)

A reference has already been made elsewhere to the traditional belief

that Indra is a LATER addition to the Vedic pantheon. This very

significant tradition cannot be adequately explained except on the

assumption of Indra's primarily HUMAN personality. It implies

that Indra was not originally a god, but that he was a human hero

who attained godhead by virtue of his miraculous exploits. Not only

that, but he soon suprseded the older gods (VII.21.7.) and came to

be regarded as the foremost among them (II.12.1.). (5)


By far, the most convincing proofs of the essential human character of Indra, are those elements that depict a human personality rather that a supreme god; and they are, as Dr. Dandekar describes, "fear" and "intimate personal feelings," which must be understood to refer to the actual life of a human hero before he became the Supreme God. Dr. Dandekar concludes, after his lengthy and irrefutable presentation, that


One the strength of the evidence deduced so far, we may now be

justified in concluding that Indra must have been primarily a

human hero--indeed, essentially a historical personality--that in the

course of time, he must have been elevated to the position first

of the national war-god and then of the Supreme God, and that

later on, naturalistic or cosmic elements must have been superimposed

on his personality. (6)


Thus, with Dr. Dandekar's observations and conclusions on the historicity of Indra, we shall move ahead with the euhemeristic interpretation and Biblical identification of Indra.

These observations of Dr. Dandekar establish quite conclusively the humanity of the hero-god Indra. That he was quite "human" is now unquestionable. This also substantiates the Genesis-10 premise that the patriarches of the Hebrew tradition are one and the same with the Indo-Aryan hero gods--that these so-called 'gods' were actually historical human heros and patriarches, just like the Noahic family.



The Biblical Noah was the first and most prominent of all the leaders in post-diluvian times. One could say that he was the first Monarch or ruler-king after the flood. Allusions to this may be seen in such occurrences as his absolutism and his divine right to rule given by God, as shown in his cursing Canaan and blessing Shem; and the building of the first sacrificial altar to God, where Noah is the first sacrificer. Noah was also the one granted with power to bless and to curse. These and a few others, like the Great Commission, surely illustrate that Noah was the divinely appointed one, the one given the first divine right of Kingship. Noah was the first King of mankind.

Most all other cultural traditions mention a first Father or patriarchal ruler hero, who is depicted as a 'Solar-King' ruling over a Solar Dynasty. For, as Dr. Pilkey states, "all of the primary nations claimed the existence of Sun gods."(7) The most profound among all the traditions is the East Indian version recorded in the character of the Thunder God, Indra; for tradition states that he was the Sun (god) who "animated the mountain (i.e. world) with his rays." Indian tradition also mentions that he is known (under the title name "Vishnu") to have established all of creation, the world of mankind and the "gods." Vishnu, like his counterpart Indra, is also identified with the Sun. (8)



The east Indian tradition, like most all other mythologies, shows a close parallel system of creation symbolism to the Hebrew. The Warrior god Indra, like the Biblical Noah and his seven other companions of the Ark, is known to have participated in the creation of the cosmos. He is shown bringing forth the seven "Rishis" or breaths (persons):


In the beginning the universe (world) was non-existent, say the Rishis.

(But one questions) "Who are these Rishis? (Another one answers)

"They are breaths (For) Before all this Universe, they strove with toil,

and austerity. This was the breath in the midst of Indra, who is the

one who kindled (organized) them. He is the kindler (Indha), who they

called Indra. They were kindled seven separate purusha (men-persons-

Rishis)." (9)


The above passage of the Vedic writings, mentioned by Mr. Moore, reveals two very important similarities to our Biblical Noah: 1) The emerging out of chaos, and 2) the personal association with "seven" other entities. The imagery communicated through these cryptic phrases actually recall to memory the Mosaic account of the Flood disruption and succeeding historical events or renovations. Noah, like the mythological Indra, also toiled for many years prior to the great catastrophe, and with the assistance of seven others, transcended the chaos to rebuild the new world and to repopulate it. As soon as this new creation or renovation was complete, Indra too, emerged as the first to partake of sacrificial wine, just as the Vedic passage assures us:


"...(Indra's) greatness has been veritable since that time [after the chaos of

the Flood] when as soon as he was born [emerged out of the flood], he

did drink of the soma [juice, wine]."(10)


These cosmogonies (creation myths) present somewhat of a problem to the uninformed mythologist and historian; the problem of the confounding of the creation proper with other secondary creation-renovations, such as the great Flood. When reading these cosmogonic accounts, unlike the Genesis version, one gets the impression that there are two intertwined traditions; one set of symbolic "vehicles" but with two or more "tenors" or meanings. As mentioned previously, the Pagans blended both their creation and flood accounts together, creating one generic composition to promote a forgetfulness of the great judgment that God brought upon ante-Diluvian mankind.



The descendants of Noah in almost every part of the world, within their mythological accounts of the primitive creation, symbolized the world with the image of an egg! Yes, at first thought, this may sound somewhat idiotic, but it sounds no more idiotic than the new Testament's usage of such symbols as 'Door,' 'Lamb,' 'temple,' and 'Tabernacle' for the Saviour Jesus. Actually, it should be just as easy for the Christian to believe and accept the Cosmic Egg as the beginning of Creation as to believe that Christ is the Sun rising with wings of healing (Mal.4:2), flapping His way up in His morning assent to heal all the faithful.

Now, one may wonder where in this world the Ancients got such an idea as the cosmic Egg. This is a justifiable question to those who have not made symbolism and mythology their trade. To answer this, the 'Egg" was employed to represent the Universe in its largest extent, which is not all that different from modern speculations. After all, the Universe is Egg-shaped, isn't it? Though, in its more prominent application, the Egg was symbolic of the Earth. It is interesting to note, that Moses also used similar imagery in describing the notion of the Spirit of God, fluttering like a bird over the chaos of waters beneath. With some further imaging, it does not take much to visualize a nest of eggs. This archaic symbolism seems to have been familiar to such Patriarches as Noah, as derived from the general practice among his descendants of using this imagery of the Egg. In all the accounts of Pagan cosmogonies, no symbol could have been more appropriately chosen than an egg to symbolize the Earth, man's birth place among the celestial spheres. Therefore, the egg is from the bird, as the earth is from the Lord. The typology is simple and self explanatory.

According the above analogy of the egg, the earth and the universe, the egg represents "birth-place," and, therefore, may represent the seed from which man is born--Mother Earth; and to a greater extent, the Universe, man's cosmic home.

There is another world which the Egg represents. During the Noahic Flood, all the rudiments (seeds) of the New World were enclosed within the Ark that Noah built. Analogous to the earth floating on the vast oceanic chaos of the celestial expanse of space, which the Ancients identified as an endless Sea, the Ark, which floated on the chaos of terrestrial waters, was also symbolized as a cosmic egg. This analogy between the Universe, the earth and the Ark, is easily grasped when given just attention. The Ark was considered a microcosm or 'little-world' version of the greater one, the Earth; which in turn, was only a lesser version of the Universe itself. In a more in-depth study, it is almost impossible not to see that the symbol has been transferred from the greater world to the smaller world.

To divest any further skepticism about this, an illustration using the analogy between Noah's Ark and the Saviour will be sufficient. The Ark, according to Biblical analogy, is like Christ. It was the saving grace, the salvation and baptism of our ancestral fathers; and for any and all who may hear the calling and enter into its rest. The Egg is just the Gentile version of the Ark.

In Pagan Hindu traditions, the Egg is also analogous to the Lotus Flower and the Serpent as can be seen from the myths of Visnu, Brahma, Indra and the Creation. (11) Instances of this egg tradition may also be seen in the other traditional mythologies of the world: In the Greek myths of Dionysus or Phanes; in the character of Cupid; in the legend of Oannes or Dagon; in the fables of the Persians and Syrians; in the Chinese legendary figure Hoang-Ho and his egg-born descendants; in the Japanese fable of the Bull and the Egg, and finally, in the myths of the Hindu gods Visnu and Brahma, of which we will now discuss. (A cosmogonical typology of micro and macrocosmic worlds can be found in Appendix-I)



In the Hindu Puranic histories, the whole earth is said to have been flooded with water and Visnu slept through this period on the bosom of the Great-Mother, Devi or Parvati.(12) Many of the Puranas have this interesting Creation story of the coming into existence, for the first time, the many different aspects of the world from the Cosmic Egg.(13) Yet, according to the Garuda Purana, the Creation that evolved out of the Cosmic Egg is only the secondary creation. (14) To the Biblicist, this means the last great world flood in God's re-creation.

In the beginning, according to the Rig Vedic Scriptures, the Golden Embryo (The Egg) arose, and once this had happened, "He" was born, the one Lord of all Creation. For, when the high waters appeared, pregnant with the embryo that was the essence of everything, bringing forth fire, "He" arose from the chaos as the only life-breath of the gods. But, a question arises: 'Who is this god whom everyone should worship with the oblation? (15) The Garuda Purana says, that "He" is Visnu, the one called Purana-purusa, 'The Primordial Being,' among the Twice-born. (16) Visnu, the title name of Indra, of which we shall explain later, was one of a group of Eight beings, and was like the others. They were born for the first time from a womb, yet, also a second time from the womb of the cosmic egg and the chaos of primeval waters. They were, thus, born twice or "twice-born." It is further said, that the ancient Indians, with their naturalistic interpretations, equated the great flood waters with the birth fluids of the womb of a woman.

In the Kurma Purana, these Eight occupants all resided within the Cosmic Egg, which was encircled by an infinity of water. Their leader, the Egg-Captain, was the great god Visnu-II or MahaDeva, who was also called Adideva, the Primordial God, because he was the first one in the beginning. (17) The Garuda Purana also supports the above description in its details of creation and the creative sport of Lord Visnu. The Lord Visnu is said to have abided, with the others, within the Cosmic Egg and when taking on a physical body, came out of the 'Ark' and was born a second time, for the sake of Creation and for the sake of renovating a new world. (18) This sounds a lot like Noah!

A description of Visnu follows, that unquestionably supports a monogenetic origin of man. The writer of this Puranic verse echoes St. Peter's statement about Noah's family, when he proclaims, that


His eyes are the Sun and the Moon...

The Heaven has come out of his head...

The Creation, the subsidiary Creation, the lineage, the

long ages, and the records of kings and great

personages can all be traced to him (Visnu-Indra). (19)


The Rig Vedas declare that everyone has his genesis rooted in one great Mother parent. Whether it is meant genetically or not, it surely alludes to the Cosmic-Egg Ark:

"O, gods...we share in common the relationship of brothers, in the womb of the Mother." (20) These accounts illustrate in symbolic form, that from Visnu, a Lotus sprang from his navel and that from this Lotus ascended a beautiful flower. From this flower, says the chronicler, the god Brahma was produced, who, looking about at the great expanse, concluded that he was the 'first-born.'

The Lingu Purana says, that the Lord Visnu is the origin of Brahma and it calls Brahma, "Purusa." It goes on to mention that Visnu assumed the incarnation form of a Boar, who lifted up the earth that had been submerged under the waters and who also re-established the earth as it was originally. Then, with great effort, he made the earth and created the four worlds beginning with Bhuh. It was at this time upon the serpent's coils of his consort Sesha, that he(Visnu) begat Brahma. (21) Here it appears that Brahma and Indra are closely related.

In the following Kurma Purana, the son of Visnu, who is Brahma, adopts for himself, the traditional claim of the Creatorship of Visnu, through the acquisition of the Visnu-Incarnation principle. This seems to reflect the blessing of Shem by Noah. Note the following:


In the beginning there was nothing but vast water, a terrible ocean

full of darkness; all living beings perished. Then appeared Brahma,

of golden color. He was [also] called Narayana. He was called this,

because the waters were called "Narah," since the waters are born of

"Nara," the first cosmic man, and since the waters constitute his abode

(Ayana), he is called Narayana. Understanding that the earth was

submerged under water, he (Brahma, Prajapati) became desirous of

lifting it up. He assumed the Boar from (as the Visnu Incarnation

serves the Third Boar, in line of Hari, Kumara, Brahma) and

entered the underworld and lifted it up. Then he brought the earth

to its original position, and then gave up the Boar form, and

commenced earth's renovation as it had been before. (22)


In the Rig Veda myth of the Creation of the Seven Priests, Visnu commands the seven Half-Embryos to portion out the semen of the world. These seven embryos, horses or sons, are the seven Priests. They were the Creators, who fashioned the Sun from the seed split by the Father. (23) This portioning out of the semen, is a eugenic statement symbolic for the early Noahic genetics of the post-Diluvian period, when the nations were being established.

There are two very important phrases in the above verses that state emphatically that this chaotic flood was preceded by human populations and with other hero-gods. Yet, Brahma is mentioned as the Boar Incarnation of Visnu and is named in likeness of Visnu. Brahma-narayana is not positioned as the third incarnation Boar, succeeding the Indian Noah, Vaivarvata-Manu(the Fish Incarnation), but is positioned BEFORE the seventh Manu, as the third descended from Lord Narayana-Hari, succeeding Kumara. In this position, he is the third, or Visnu-II. (24)

To explain this, we only have to reverse the pagan tradition of confounding the cosmogonies and observe how they also confounded the creation with the flood, placing the post-flood Brahma back to a position posterior to the Creation Proper. Their mistake becomes evident, when they mention within the context of Brahma and the Creation Proper, that "all living beings perished." The idea of renovating the new world "as it had been before" in the context of a Proper Creation, is also absurd, when one knows that before this, there was nothing. The hidden context, perverted by the later mythologists, is here exposed and shown to be the secondary Creation or renovation, the Great Flood of Noah!

The Scanda Purana mentions that Brahma's claim of creatorship was contested by Lord Visnu and the God Shiva(Siva). Visnu says, "O Siva, I am the seed of the existence of the World. I am the Creator of the World."(25) What he means here is, that he is the first-born. For, "All the worlds quicken in him(Visnu) like the Sakula-fish in water. He is 'Rta,' who is the cosmic order, divine law or truth, settled rule or sacred custom."(26) At a later date, Visnu's claim was acknowledged by both the other gods. In other reports, Visnu is represented not sleeping on the bosom of Sesha, Devi or Parvati, but reposing with his consort Lakshmi at the feet of the great serpent, Ananta; the folds of which , as it floats on the surface of the deluge, are coiled up in the exact form of a boat, while its numerous heads serve as a canopy of shade for the head of Visnu.(27)

The import of the above myth is obvious. Devi-Parvati and the image of the serpent illustrate to the monogenist, the Ark of Noah's family. It appears that the Hindu's equated the serpent--their symbol of rebirth--with the womb, from which they depict one is born from. They, therefore, femininely personified it as a goddess, the great Mother Devi-Parvati. This typology of Parvati and the serpent as a symbol of rebirth, and thus, a type of cosmic egg or ark, is prevalent in Holy Scripture: The Brazen Serpent is well known and was an Old Testament type of Christ on the Cross. Remembering now, that the Noahic Ark is a symbol of Christ, the Tabernacle refuge, it is not difficult to see hoe the ancient pagans confounded their Ark with the Serpent symbol. They also symbolized the chaos of the waters, with the wavy coils of the serpent. This explains why the consort of Visnu was named Shesha, or Sesa The White Serpent Goddess. Mr. Faber, commenting on this Hindu tradition, says, that it also appears,


"that the birth of Brahma took place at the epoch of the flood;

while the great power slept on the surface of the all-prevailing

ocean..." and that

"...the navel or womb of allowed to be a great symbol of

the great mother...[and] is also acknowledged to denote the very

same[thing] as the aquatic lotus."


He also goes on to say, that this lotus is also a hieroglyphic of the same import as the ship Argha containing the god Siva. The conclusion from this, is that what is said of one of the three--Braham, Visnu, Siva--is said of all.

The tenor of the legends thus seems to direct us to the era of the flood, through the cause of the creation, and to the birth of Brahma from the lotus and the divine navel, which can only mean the allegorical birth of the patriarch Shem or Noah from the Ark. Brahma is also said to have been born from an egg, which floated upon the mighty waters of chaos. He is shown to be sitting in this egg during a whole year, like Noah enclosed within the Ark, along with his family. from this, Visnu's moving on the waters and concealment within ann egg, Vishnu acquired the name "Narayana," a name/title not only for Vishnu, but for Brahma as well. So, as Brahma was born from the lotus, the navel and also the egg, they then must logically refer to the same thing: That Brahma's birth from the egg must, therefore, denote a birth from a ship and that this egg and the ship must mean the same thing.(28)



In the genealogies originating from Indra, there is a multiplication of names and dynasties. This diversification of names and persons presents a difficult problem to be solved for the researcher. Indra seems to have more than one name and sometimes seems to be diversified into more than one person. This splits the genealogies up into duplicate segments presenting apparently different genealogical traditions. But, this is easily remedied if the researcher approaches the problems from a monogenetic and multiple name theory.

The resolution to this apparent confounding situation of multiple names is to identify and stabilize a selection of 'key' figures. Within the characters of the multiple names there are similarities and parallelisms enough to decipher the rest . When identifications are made, with the proper cross-referencing, they will reveal the true genealogical family members in their real identities. To begin, the different genealogical names of Indra must be reviewed and studied. It will be noticed, that there is a close companionship between Indra and Brahma. And no wonder, for he is the son of Indra. It appears that wherever you have Brahma in the myths and the mentioning of a progenitor, you have as the progenitor Indra.

Similar to other personalities, Indra is given many names and titles in Indian literature. He has been found to have such names as Acyuta(29), Satakratu, Dishnu(30) and Maghavan(31). Most of these designate only his varied aspects or characteristics, with many of them associated(sometimes explicitly) with other gods. The Rig Veda, though, suggests an all-inclusive ownership of all these title names by Indra when it says,


Whatever excellent praises[according to the specific attribute

or aspect, hence, a particular name] are given to other divinities,

they are also, the due of Indra...(32)


From the foregoing, it may be supposed that, whatever excellent names are given to other gods, they are also, likewise, given to Indra. Another verse from the Rig Veda substantiates this principle of name adoption. For Indra is'


...that mighty Aditya(Sun), that indestructive Agni(Fire)

that moving Vayu(Wind)... (33)


In other locations in Indian mythology, such as in the Mahabarata Epic, Indra is called Sakra and Visnu, as the Epic writer mentions Kadra


...seeing her sons in such a [bad] state, [she, Kadra] gave praise

to Sakra: "Thou art Vishnu, and the thousand-eyed Indra, and

God and last resort [in my decision]."(34)


The Siva Purana records that Visnu, because of his brilliance in resembling the Sun, came to be called 'Svetavaraha' or the 'White Bore' in all the worlds.(Siva P. I:204:59) In another context, Indra is called Narayana, as well as Visnu. For, we see him as identified in the compound name 'Vishnu-Narayana.'(35) These identifications of Indra are very important to the monogenist, for these name designations chronologically place Indra in the position of the All-Father of all the national mythologies.

In identifying Indra with Visnu, we find that he is the 'First Incarnation[or dynastic Ruler] of Visnu;' the Fish Incarnation Matsya. The fish designation, as a symbol of the first incarnation, is most surely due to the claim of Indra-Visnu[Noah], as the first to emerge from the Ark, after the Flood.(36) It is common to see in history, that the first one to leave a ship to stand on a new world, is always the Captain. The Near Eastern Fish-god Oannes, is shown emerging from the Persian Gulf to teach man the arts and sciences. The first Fish incarnation principle of Visnu-Indra[Noah], the Incarnation of Matsya, brings to memory the universal tradition of the half-fish, half-man deity Oannes. According the Mr. Bryant, Oannes, rendered in reverse by Orientals, is ' Sen-Nao.' Other Oannes[Noah] types of Fish-men may be observed in the figures of Triton, son of Poseidon and Aphrodite; the Assyrian and Egyptian Nin and the Philistine Dagon. This is put forth by other writers as well, such as with Mr. Faber and Edward Moore. Even the later writer Mr. Waddell agrees with this. Waddell points out that the titles 'Nun' and 'Numa,' which are prefixed to most of the names in the Sumerian Isin King Lists, seems to be the equivalent of the fish symbolism of the 'Khad' title of King Urash of Indian fame. They have the same meaning of 'sea-lord.' The sign 'Nun' is written by a pictogram of a fish! It may even be a 'sea-serpent' in which the cross bars represent the coils. He continues to show, that the bilingual glossaries define it as "Fish," "Great," "Majestic" and "Lord." It also functions as a title for Lord-Dara and InDara, as 'Lord of the Abyss(Sea).' Waddell then concludes that these are title names of the East Indian Aryan god Indra.(37)

What is interesting about the above Incarnation figure Matsya, is that the Persians, the Western neighbors of the East Indians, retain similar traditions and names of this figure. The Zoroastrians, in their Pahlavi Texts, also retain this same name under the figure of their first great primeval progenitor 'Mashya,' an almost identical spelling to the Hindu Matsya. They identify him as the first progenitor of ALL mankind and the consort of Queen Mashyoi. Their identity as Noah and Royal Wife is plainly revealed in the following inquiry and succeeding reply:


Where and from what did the origin or race...arise; and from what

place did it{ [they] arise? "]It was, says the one answering]...owing to

that which Mashya and Mashyoi, that they effected the

first intercourse,...and [from this intercourse] the entire progress of the

races of every kind of lineage of men arose from that, and all the

men of the world [today] are of that race."(38)


The first Matsya Incarnation of Visnu-Indra, gave him that title Vishnu-Narayana, as celebrative of the Great Flood and the Coming-Forth from the Ark, which in Hindi means 'becoming twice-born' and final renovation of the earth: Nara is a word designating in Sanskrit, 'Water.' Interestingly, the name of the Hindu god Visnu, written without the digamma is "Ish-nuh," which in Chaldea means "the man of Noah."(39)

Etymological parallels between the Hindu, the Sumerian and Phoenician peoples, reveal a universal cultic religious adoration for this great fish-god, Visnu. These ties extend to such cultures as the Egyptians and Philistines. Visnu-I or Vishnu-Narayana is variously named among these different cultures: Nun, Nu or Nin and Nen in Egyptian myth; Dagan of the Ugaritic Syrians; Dagon among the Philistines; Dedanu and Deda of the Amorites and Nunnu (fish) in Sumerian. The latter is also a title of the Sun god, as is evident from the many Seal impressions found by archaeologists. The "Fish of the Setting Sun" or Sukha is a very important name in the theory of the Sumerian origin of the Indo-Europeans. The Aryans on India remember their ancestors as the "Su-Meru-eans,"--the people of Sumeru, Meru or Sumer. It reveals the real meaning of the Vedic name of the Sun-god Visnu and his 'watery' nature as a fish-man. It also shows us the Sumerian origin of our English "Fish," the Gothic "Fisk" and the Latin "Piscis." The first incarnation of Visnu, the Sun God, as described as a fish-man under the name Matsya, is obviously the Indo-Iranian [Persian] Mashya and is of the same form as the Sumerian fish-man and Setting-Sun, the Fish "Kha". In the bilingual Sumero-Akkadian glossaries, it is "Su-Kha." With the addition of "na"(man), it literally means "The Winged Fish-Man."

Hindu tradition retains this above etymology in later title names, such as in the Mahabarata Epic figure Karna, son of Pandu, a relative of the Pandava family. They are interestingly as white complexed as the Aryans. His name may also be written "Kharna," and can be divided into two syllables, "Kha" and "na" with an additional "r" dividing them. To this writer's knowledge, there seems to be no mention of him as a 'fish-man.' Yet, his birth story and river basket ride is identical to that of the Biblical Moses. As the figure Surya the Sun-god, Karna was the Sun-god. His title was, "The Celestial-Bird." His other name was Martanda or the 'Nobly-Winged Garutman."(40) He thus appears to have adopted the title of "Winged-Solar Fish-Man," as the east Indian equivalent to "Nun."

In the Sumerian, Indian, English, Gothic and Latin languages, the words Kha, Vish, Fish, Fisk and Piscis are all cognate terms, no matter what the varied prefix consonants are. The "nu" in Vishnu appears to be the same Sumerian Nu, title name of the Sun-god Shamas and Indara or Indra, "God of the Deep." Visnu or Nu is represented in Hindu myth as reclining upon a serpent of the deep called Sesha or Shesha. The Egyptians retain this universal cultic religious figure, "God of the Sea," in their mythical "Nu," their name for their God of the Deep. The Egyptian Nu, the Sumerian Pish-nu and the Indian Vish-nu, all mean the same: "The Great Fish (God) Man of the Waters."(41) Later gods, such as Ptah and Poseidon took up this same title. The Fish-Man Visnu is also the Oannes of the historian Berossus. He is the half-fish, half-man god, who came up out of the Sea to teach mankind the sciences. He is the Dagon of the Philistines and the Bible and is the inverted version of Sen-nao, according to Jacob Bryant.

Mr. Waddell says, that Nun or Nin was a common Sumerian name for Indara, Induru or Indra. That it was later manifest in the Chaldean Nunnu, 'a fish.' The Sumerian Nin, Nun is obviously the original of the ancient Egyptian NU, the God of the Waters and Celestial Sky God of the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Other Egyptian variants of NU are apparently the same as the Sumerian: Nin, Nen, Nun. The name is the original of the Greek Noe, as suggested by its Chaldean parallel Nao, in the name Sennao (Oannes). It is the parent of the Hebrew Noh, from which our Biblical Noah is derived. It may also be traced to the Eddic (Gothic) Noa and Noi--a ship; and to the Persian Nau--a ship, from which we derive our word 'Nautical'.(42) All the associated animal, foul and other symbols, throughout these ancient cultures, seem to all point back to an original Noahic source and to have had a universal meaning.

As previously discussed, the ancient name for Indra, used by the Indians, was Visnu and Vishnu-Narayana. Some precaution must be taken when identifying these two names, for though Indra may be a proper name, the other is used as a title name. The principle of name adaptation explains the Hindu multiplication of identities with the same name, such as Vishnu, Narayana, MahaVishnu, etc. With Visnu, for instance, there were seven of them in the proper form. The most prominent of these seven was the Seventh Incarnation of Visnu or Rama-Chandra mentioned in the Ramayana Epic and other Puranic writings. The second most important one was Vishnu-Narayana, who at one time was the First Incarnation of Vishnu and the most important. These Incarnations show that the name Visnu was a title name and that it was successively used by succeeding generations of important sons. An example is the following taken from the Garuda Puranic history:


Suta said, I shall recount to you the Garuda Purana, the essence of the

anecdotes of Visnu. Formerly, this was narrated to Kasyapa by Garuda.

I heard it from Vyasa in the past. The Lord narayana alone is the

most powerful almighty of all gods. He is the supreme soul. He is the

supreme Brahman. All this world originates from him. For the

preservation of the universe, the unborn, unaging, deathless Vasudeva

assumes various incarnations in the form of Kumara, etc. At first, that

god, Hari, assumed the form of Kumara and O'Brahman, performed the

unbroken vow of Brahmacarya (celibacy), very difficult for every one.

Secondly, the Lord of sacrifices took up the form of a boar lifting up

the earth that had sunk deep into the neither region. The Third

incarnation was in the form of a Sage (wise man). Assuming the form of

the divine sage Narada, he expounded the Satvata Tantra--the]

philosophy of inactivity of actions. In the Fourth incarnation Lord Hari,

assuming the form of Nara- Narayana, practiced penance for the

preservation of religion. He was honored by gods as well as demons. The

Fifth was in the form of Kapila, the foremost among the Siddhas, who

instructed Asuri in the philosophy of Sankhya, which had been ravaged

by the lapse of time and categorized the twenty-five tattvas (elements).

The Sixth incarnation was in the form of

Datta, the son of Atri and Anasuya. Then, the Lord expounded the

philosophy of Anviksiki (metaphysics) to Alarka, Prahlada and others.

Then, in the Seventh incarnation, he was born as Yajna, the son of Ruci

and Akuti, as a result of propitiation by Indra and other gods in the

Svayambhuva era. In the Eighth incarnation, he was born as Urukrmam

the son of Nabhi and Merudevi. He indicated to women the path of

duty deserving respect of people of all stages of life. In the Nineth

incarnation, as requested by the sages, he took up the form of Prthu.

With the milk of potential herbs he resuscitated the brahmanas and other

creatures. He took the form of a fish in the Great Deluge at the end of

the Caksusa Manvantara [Age] and saved Vaivasvata manu by putting

him in a terrestrial boat. [The Tenth seems to be missing?--R.S.M.] In

the Eleventh incarnation the All-pervasive Lord took the form of a

Tortoise and bore the Mountain Mandara on his back while the gods

and demons churned the ocean. In his Twelfth and Thirteenth

incarnations as Dhanvantari and a woman Mohini respectively, the Lord

gratified the gods and charmed others. In the Fourteenth incarnation as

the Man-Lion, he tore the powerful demon (?) with his fierce claws as

the matmaker tears the willow-barks. In the Fifteenth incarnation,

assuming the form of Vamana he went to the sacrificial altar of Bali.

Wishing to regain Heaven, he begged of him three steps of space. In his

Sixteenth incarnation as Parasurama seeing the princes inimical to the

brahmanas he became infuriated and made the earth devoid of Ksatriyas

twenty-one times. In his Seventeenth incarnation, he was born of Satyavati

and Parasara. Seeing men deficient in the intellect, he created branches

of the tree of Veda. After that, in his Eighteenth incarnation, he became

Prince Rama and in his desire to do work of the gods, performed many

deeds such as bridging the ocean. In his Nineteenth and Twentieth

incarnations he obtained birth as Balarama and SriKrishna, in the

family of the Vrsnis the Lord lessened the burden of the earth. At the

juncture of Kali era, in order to delude demons, he will be born in the

Kikata country as the son of Jina and named as Buddha. Again, in

the Eighth juncture(change of cycles), when all kings will be on the verge

of extinction, the Lord of the Universe will be born of Visnuyasas and

named as Kalki. Thus, O'Brahmanas! innumerable are the incarnations

of Hari, the Omnipotent Lord. From them originate creations, etc. They

have to be worshipped and propitiated by Vrata and other religious rites.

Long ago, Vyasa narrated to me this Garuda Purana. in

- (Garuda. 12. v.11-35 p. 2-6)

The Hindu concept of a succession of Incarnations surely has its problems and errors, but it does reflect a truth lost to modern man. The above refers, in a Noahic context, to a succession of Divine Rights of Kingship or, in the above, "Visnu-ships." It is believed by this writer to contain all the elements of the Biblical "Elijah AS John the Baptist" equation; the genetic repetition of personalities, even genetic memories. The Hindu's would boldly say, "Visnu has re-incarnated again." The Biblicist would say, "No, Visnu-II, just like John the Baptist, only picks up the Divine Commission of the First, Elijah." In a Noahic context and chronology, most all these Visnu's were contemporaries and the title was just transferred to a descendent. It was later that the Hindus separated them by vast periods of time and made them into the same being. Rama-Chandra, though, in the Seventh Vishnaic period, is still contemporary with Vishnu-I. Even they themselves infer this in their myths and Epics. The ancients understood this principle of the re-incarnating spirit of Vishnu, as only a part of Vishnu's divine essence, transposing itself into a later descendent, thus making that descendent of Vishnu, Visnu himself.

It seems one step ahead of the Christian principle of the indwelling Holy Spirit in the Believer. In Truth, a new essence (The Holy Spirit) has been added to the adopted Saint, but unlike the Hindu theology, the Saint does not become God or The Holy Spirit or Jesus. When Jesus said that John the baptist was Elijah, I am sure He meant Elijah-II; that he had the essence of Elijah by proxy of the Holy Spirit, as the Heir to the Divine Commission given to Elijah by God.







10/1 The First I (Fish) Vishni-Narayana Noah

Matsya (Indra)


11/2 The Second II (Tortoise) Brahma Shem

Kurma Brahma-narayana


12/3 The Third III (Boar) [Daksa?] Arphaxad

Varaha DhanVantari


13/4 The Fourth IV (Man-Lion) [Canaan or

Nrishinha Sidon]


14/5 The Fifth V (Dwarf) Surya-II Shelah

Vamana Ravana


15/6 The Sixth VI (Parasurama) King Dasaratha Eber

16/7 The Seventh VII (The Prince) Prince RamaChandra Joktan




Garuda Purana Incarnations Symbol Number of Manu's Incarnation


1. Lord Narayana(Hari) Vishnu - - Lord Vishnu Hari



2. Kumara Vishnu-I - - - -

3. Brahma Vishnu-2 - Earth Lifting

Boar 1st Svayambhava-


4. Narada Vishnu-3 - - - -

5. Nara-Narayana Vishnu-4 - - - 2ed Svarocisa

6. Kapila Vishnu-5 - - - 3erd Auttama/Uttama

7. Datta Vishnu-6 - - - 4th Tamas

8. Yajna Vishnu-7 - - - 5th Raivata

9. Uruk-Rama Vishnu-8 - - - 6th Caksusa

(Churning of the Sea of Milk &

Devasura Battle)

10. Prthu Vishnu-9 - - - 7th Sratdhadeva

....................................................................................................................................................................................11. Vaivasvata-Manu: the 7th manu; A Fish saved him in an Ark at the end of the 6th manu Reign, at the end of the Caksusa manvantara Period--THIS IS THE GREAT FLOOD PERIOD: Vishnu fought the evil Hayagriva and saved Manu. Vishnu-10 or V-I FISH -


12. -- Vishnu-11 V-2 TORTOISE 8th Savarni


13. Dhanvantaraim Vishnu-12 V-3 BOAR 9th DaksaSavarni


14. Mohini(f.) Vishnu-13 --------- 10th Dharmaputra or


15. ---------- Vishnu-14 V-4 MAN-LION 11th Rudraputra,


16. Vamana Vishnu-15 V-5 DWARF 12th Daksaputra

(V-MAN-LION, Nrsihm)

13th Raucya

14th Bhautya

17. ParaSurama Vishnu-16 V-6 ------------ --------


18. ------------ Vishnu-17 - - -

19. Pr. Rama Vishnu-18 V-7th Rama -

20.BalaRama Vishnu-19 ------- -

21. Sri-Krishna Vishnu-20 V-8th - -

22. Buddha, son of Jina. Vishnu-21 V-9 (At the Junction of the Kali Age)

23. Kalki Vishnu-22 V-10 -


24. (See the garuda Purana 12:44:14 for 24 Vishnu Incarnations)


Hari saved the earth 21 Times: Gar. Purana.12:Ch.142.p.411.vs.8.

NOTE: The Primeval Creator God "Hari" (Vishnu) or Lord Narayana is the most original powerful god of all gods. All the world originated from him. His power is manifested in descending forms called AVATARAS or DESCENTS commonly called Incarnations, in which a portion of his divine essence is embodied. c.f. Garuda Purana page 12, Chapter 142, page 411, page 268, vs.37., Chapter 12.1.p.2-6., Chapter


Another name in Hindu tradition for the Warrior God Indra is "Sakra;"(43) the Sakko of the Pali and a favorite title used by Buddha for Indra. This name is obviously derived from the Sumerian title "Sakh" or "Sax" of the Father God Induru, as the "Enthroned One." It is a name which is also disguised in such other names as Kasyapa, Kuberi, Enlil and Enki.(44) Mr. Waddell also shows that "Din", "Dun'" and "Du" in 'Ia-Din' and 'Edin' signifies an earth work or fort. The name Sakra and Sakko, Sax or Zax is derived from the Sumerian "Sakh" as well. For, Indra in his Sumerian and Hittite identities is Induru or Bel, the Sun-god and Indara. Therefore, the names Edin and IaDin are interpreted to mean "Induru-fort" or "Indra-shrine," the shrine, Fort or Saki-City of Ia, Indra or Bel the Sun-god.(45)

On discussing ancient geography, Waddell continues to point out that this "Saki-City" or "Captured-Land," or what the Hindus call "Sakadwipa" is also identified as the Land of the Bull or heaven in the Vedas.(46) This is the name Saki, Saka-Land or Sakadwipa of Indra. It is the name of the land of the Maga or magi, famous for its worshippers of the Sun and Bull. Its traditional location is in the Indus Valley area, an area known for its animal husbandry and agriculture.[According to Hindu traditions, Sakadwipa is located N.W. of Indian Jumbadwipa. Yet, with Jumbadwipa identified as Mesopotamis, it is shown to the N.E. It may well have included more Southern parts. If the Mesopotamian location for Jumbadwipa The greater, is correct, then the Puranic City of Indra, "Amaravati," which lies East of Meru would juxtapose it exactly where Waddell locates it in the Indus.] These Indus Valley people, like the Sumerians and early Aryans, regarded the Bull(Ox, Buffalo) as a sacred animal and conjoined the idea of the sacredness of the Bull and that of the Cow, with that of the Sun. To them, the Sun, the Cow and the Bull imagery were interchangeable and had equal symbolic significance, equally referring to Indra himself.(47)

Mr. Waddell continues to say that, the Indus Valley is the traditional location of Indra's Sakadwipa or City location of the Sun-god Bel, Induru or Indra. Its name consists of three word-signs, meaning "Dwelling-Place,"or "Sanctuary"; "Sun-god", traditionally claimed to have been built by King Uruas. This location of King Uruas stood outside the territorial claims of Mesopotamia, in the "Captured-Land" of the Saka country. All these personal and geographical names derived from Indra do have a non-cognate correspondence. Even the syllable "Ia" is a short form of the Sumero-Hittite (Sumeru) Induru and Indara.(48)

The name Indra itself, is another example of name-adaptation and change. It is from the apparent contrast in Indra's two or more birth origins, and the conflicting stories and his personality traits that highly suggest that there is more than one mythic person with the name Indra. Originally, it was the personal name of Vishnu-Narayana, but became a 'title' name later, for one of his successors or opponents who usurped it.

In the Rig Vedas, Indra is depicted as a hero and prominent god, but in later Puranic writings, he appears almost forgotten and even different in personality.(49) A possible clue is King Dasaratha in the Epic myths. Dasaratha is depicted as desiring the title name of Indra, "The Prolific One", in wishing to be a second Indra. Even his father [Karna, Ravana, or Aja, in the Puranic writings, consort of Ilabila(50)] is mentioned as being Indra-II.(51) This is obviously an adoption or usurpation of Indra's Royal Title and political powers.


The principle of multiple-naming, like name-adoption and changing is another aspect of the ancient Indians. Indra or Vishnu-Narayana is also named MahaVishnu. Brahma, son of Vishnu-Narayana, verifies this, by also being called the son of MahaVishnu.(52) He is also said to be the offspring from the navel of Vishnu-I, for tradition states:


In the beginning MahaVishnu lay on a banyan leaf in the shape

of a baby and began to think "Who am I ?", "Who created me?"

...and so on. At that time, an ethereal voice said, "[Sanskrit words]".

MahaVishnu was amazed...MahaDevi said,..."from your nave Brahma

will be born." Accordingly, from the navel of Vishnu a lotus grew up

and in that flower Brahma took his form."(53)


Therefore, from an in-depth study of the birth accounts of Brahma, we see that the one progenitor is Indra variously named Vishnu, MahaVishnu and Vishnu-Narayana. He is also identified with Heti, who is the father of Vidyutkesa(Brahma in the Epics), and Jumba, the Great-Grandfather of Vishrava-Kasyapa. He is the one who named Jumbadwipa, one of the mythical continents in Hindu geography. He is probably Viraya of the myths and surely Mahendra in the Ramayana Epic. He is also Lord Sechi, Meghavan("Possessor of Wealth"), Purandara "the Destroyer of Cities", Sakra "the Powerful", Shatakratu "of a thousand sacrifices", and Vajrapani "the One Who bares the Thunderbolt". His consorts were the White Serpent woman Sechi and the yellow woman Rakshasi.