Thou, God of Thunder, satst on Meru thron'd,

Cloud-riding, mountain-piercing, thousand-ey'd,

With young PULOMAJA, thy blooming bride,

Whilst air and skies thy boundless empire own'd,

Hail, DYUPETIR, dismay to Bala's pride!

Or speaks PURANDER best thy martial fame,

Or SACRA, mystick name?

With various praise in odes and hallow'd story

Sweet bards shall hymn thy glory.

Thou, VA'SAVA, from this unmeasur'd height

Shedst pearl, shedst odours o'er the sons of light!


This Thunder-god appears to have originally possessed all the attributes of all the so-called gods(54), especially the attributes of the Sun. Like Indra, Vishnu was a particular Solar-god, typically in the Vedas, and is often associated with Indra. The Vedas say:


Vaiswanara(Indra), by his magnitude, is all men...[Thus, Vedic theology

suggests resolving all the divinities in Vedic literature into three: Fire,

Air, the Sun and then, all these into one, the Sun Nirukta.] Indra

(is)...the ancient Lord...who is the type of all...Thou art the type of

the extended earth; thou art the lord of the vast God-frequented

(Swarga). Verily, with thy bulk thou fillest all the firmament: of a truth,

there is none other such as thou! (55)


The Rig Veda also affirms to its readers, that


The circumstationed [inhabitants of the three worlds] associated with

{Indra], the mighty Aditya (Sun), the indestructible Agni (Fire), the

moving Vayu (Wind), that light that shines in the sky. (56)


All such epithets applying to Indra suggest an all inclusive supremacy and sovereignty above all the other gods. Just as Noah is associated with altars and the first sacrifice, Indra is shown partaking of sacrificial wines or Soma juices, to secure and sustain his imperial sovereignty.(57)


for he, the performer of good works hast suddenly become augmented

vigour, for the sake of drinking the libation [Soma juice], and [maintaining]

seniority (among the gods). (58)


And, again, as the hymnist writes:


for they [the soma juices] enter unto thee: may they be propitious

for thy [attainment of] superior intelligence. (59)


So that...


Indra may...enjoy these...viands, in which all manly properties abide. (60)


Indra's 'suddenly augmented vigour' rightfully juxtaposes him as originator of the first inhabitants of the world, succeeding his reconstitution. For, the un-named speaker of the Rig Veda addresses them saying,


Mortals, you owe your [daily] birth (to such an Indra), who, with rays

of the morning (as the Sun) gives sense to the senseless, and to the

formless, form. (61)


These passages from the Vedas plainly show this Solar King's "advent of millennial glory, much similar to the prophetic significance of the Sun in Malachi 4:2 and the thirteenth chapter of Matthew."(62) The Vedas further point this out:


Indra, to render all things visible elevated the Sun in(to) the sky, and

charged the cloud with [abundant] waters...Indra slays Ahi and becomes

Universal Sovereignty, the Monarch of all men, comprehending all

things: then, Indra, the wielder of the thunder-bolt, became sovereign

of all that is moveable or immovable, of hornless and horned cattle;

and as he abides the monarch of men, he comprehended all things

(within him).. (63)


The accession of Indra as Solar-King and originator of mortals, and his giving the world "senses" and "form" is synonymous to the Winged-Sun figure of healing power in Malachi 4:2 [the "Sun" God Jehovah of Psalms 84:11], as one, who like the millennial Christ, brings "restoration and maintenance of universal order. The following verses will illustrate this principle of Indra's restoration, maintenance, ordering, governing and economic institutions in the advent of his sovereign rule. Notice: 1) Indra brings wealth, food and an increase in potential population density growth from advancements through technological and military achievements and expenditures: "Bestow upon us, Indra, increased reputation; great augmenting and foe subduing strength; preserve us in affluence; cherish those who are wise and supply us with wealth from which proceed excellent progeny and food." 2) Indra is the Vedic Indian sustainer of heaven and Earth: "Indra, thou art the mighty one, who becoming manifest in [the word of] alarm, [of the fear of an Asura, like Vritri] didst sustain by thy energies, heaven and earth." 3) Indra protects the individuals rights to freely, liberally pursue the acquiring of wealth and personal possessions. He promotes liberty and freedom, contrasted with the opposition's slavery and poverty: "Thou, Indra, art the giver of horses and cattle, of barley, the master and protector of wealth, the foremost in liberality; (the being ) of many days; thou disappointest not desires (addressed to thee): Thou art a friend to our friends. Such an Indra we praise." 4) "Firm-minded Indra's abiding (secure), in thy strength, beyond the limit of the wide-expanded firmament, thou hast formed the earth (i.e. framed and established government) for our preservation; thou hast been the type of vigour; thou hast encompassed the firmament and the sky, as far as the heavens." 5) Indra, here, is shown as a type of Robin Hood: "...the riches that are spread around are known to be thine [accredited as being given by Indra]; having collected them [from enemies]...and (dispels) poverty with giving cattle and horses." (64)

The scholiast upon the Rig Veda comments that Indra's morning rays "may be said to re-animate those who have been dead," or those who have been "in sleep through the night." For, he also says, "Mortals, you owe your daily birth[to such an Indra], who, with the rays of the morning (Sun), gives sense to the senseless, and form the formless." Indra is here, again, identified with the Sun, whose morning rays may be said to re-animate those who have been asleep through out the night. "Night" here must be some anachronism for the Flood. (65) Just as the Sun gives its light as a life-giving essence, so, Indra the Solar (Sun) King gives his rays of political and economic wisdom, as sense to the senseless, and form to the formless (i.e. birth to all mortals and universal order to the New World.). The "dead" or "sleeping ones" may very well refer to the genetic potential of the members of the Ark.(66)



The division of the world into geographical sectors is a very important aspect of Indra's "restoration and maintenance" of the new cosmos. Many world mythologies and traditions, such as the East Indian, depict such a division of the world in the first ages. Just as Noah is shown dividing the new world into three geographical sections between his sons Ham, Shem and Japheth, so Indra the Thunder God is shown associated with and responsible for exactly three land divisions! Ancient Hindu geography divides the world's continents into three, plus one sectors, according to the cardinal points on the compass. On the East is the station of Indra and his city 'Amarvatti.' There were other cities stationed on the other seven points of the compass named under different gods. The land allotments or continents were divided accordingly among seven sons, with Mt. Meru as the eighth position. This was the Mountain of Brahma and, therefore, the central governing force under Indra's control. This is synonymous with Noah and his seven fellow members. He and his three sons rule the four quarters. He and the seven others represent the Hindu division of the world into seven continents. Seven is the Biblical number of perfection, which means that the way Noah and Indra divided the earth was perfect in God's eyes. Indra is called the Sovereign of the Three Worlds, the Ruler of the inhabitance of the three worlds.(67)


May the gods preserve us [from that portion] of the earth whence

Vishnu(Indra), aided by the SEVEN METERS, stepped. (68)


Indra, as Vishnu-Narayana, is depicted in the Vedic and Puranic histories as "Overseer" of the earth. He is shown traveling and surveying the earth with the aid of "seven meters."


Three times he planted his foot and the whole [world] was collected in

the dust of his footstep. (69)


As before mentioned, Indra as overseer is invested with all the highest attributes and aspects of all the deities and is superior over all. In the most ancient Vedic Period, Indra is shown to have had the titles of the Sun, Fire, Wind and Stars, hence, his supreme seniority as the Vedic historian has written:(70)


Whatever excellent praises are given to all the other divinities, they

are [also the due] of Indra... (71)


Wherefore, Indra is that original one,


...who alone rules over [all] men...and over the five classes of the

dwellers on earth. (72)


And, is also that mighty Solar King who is, be reverenced by all mankind. (73)


Indra is also called "Vasu", a synonym for his name which explains his position as the original donor or cause of all habitation.(74) According to the accounts, he is the "original elevator" of the first Solar principle of government, a proto-type of the millennial government of Christ, who is prophesied to usher in the final Solar-rule with "healing in its (his) wings," for all participants.(Malachi 4:2) This prophecy of Christ rendering all things new again is foreshadowed in Noah-Indra, who,


...rendered all things visible, and elevated the Sun into the Sky.(75)

And, even as the Sun itself, he "...animated the mountain [or world]

with his rays [or, political wisdom]. (76)


The hymns of the Rig Veda reveal this All-Father Solar-King under the name of "Savitri." Savitri appears to have this Solar principle about his person, too. for just as Indra had shone his rays upon the "dead" or "asleep-ones", so he also in the figure of Savitri,


...lighted up the eight points of the horizon, the three regions of living

beings, and the seven rivers. (77)


Three regions seem to be the universal standard among mythic land divisions; this principle is the basis of Noah's three land divisions, Indra's three worlds and Savitri's three regions. For further substantiation, the Vedas declare that,


Three are the spheres; two are in the proximity of Savitri, one leads

men to the dwelling of Yama [to the south of Indra's abode]. The

immortal "Amrita" depends (solely) upon Savitri... (78)



When sapient BRAHMA' this world approv'd,

On woody wings eight primal mountains mov'd;

But INDRA mark'd Sumeru for his own,

And motionless was ev'ry stone.



Indra, like our Biblical Noah, established (Lights-up) eight geographical sectors upon the horizon of the tri-sectioned world [the allotted inheritance among the three sons], while the fourth regional division encompasses all three. Hence, the four Cardinal Quarters of the world. With three divisions of the earth and the fourth as the totality of the three, the patriarch thus divides this "horizon" into eight sub-divisions. This apparently was in tribute of the eight survivors of the Great Flood. The numerical designation of the eight sub-divisions in the Rig Veda correlate precisely with the numerical ellipses of Noah's division of the eight basic linguistic stocks of mankind--eight persons, eight languages, eight cultures and thus, eight lands!



In the Rig Veda, Indra seemed the typify our Biblical Noah by being depicted as emerging out of a chaos of some sort, then building a sacrificial altar and planting a vineyard for his 'soma' juice. The typology is to the Genesis account of Noah is strikingly close. Indra's great commission is also strikingly similar to Noah's, who was granted permission by God, to start a new world and system(s) of government. The Noahic dispensation of Human Government is an important Christian and Jewish doctrine for a proper understanding of modern governmental politics.

To reveal Indra's principle commission, the metaphorical usage of the geographical term "river" must be properly interpreted. In ancient times, rivers, like lakes and towns, were named after famous persons, and thus, in mythological renditions, came to be used for actual persons. Though, by such times as the early Vedic Period, when the Vedas were first composed, the 'tenor'(meaning) of the metaphor was lost in favor of the 'vehicle'(symbol), thus resulting in the present usage as a 'crystallized-metaphor.' Therefore, in the present usage of the word "river", the understanding of 'person', as well as a 'race' is meant.

In these passages of the Vedas, Indra's commission succeeding the Creation, was to "let loose the seven rivers to flow," and to, therefore, establish the new earth. For,


He propped up the sky, filled the two worlds, upheld the earth, and

hath meted with his measure the eastern regions like a house; and

with his thunder-bolt, he has opened up the sources of the rivers to

establish the earth. (79)


Now, what does this mean? What is meant by the loosing of the waters and the opening of the sources of the rivers in relationship to establishing the earth? What exactly was the evil opposition of Vritri? Water and rain have always been interchangeable terms, to some extent, in Hindu myth. To the Hindu, rain was a symbol of procreative fluids and its 'falling', for that of impregnation and fertilization. Thus, water is the procreative "seed", while the rivers were the carriers that act as the vehicles or persons. A simple typology, yet one simple enough that many have over-looked this meaning. The above statement "to open up the sources of the rivers", means that Noah commenced to commission the re-establishment of the races, under the patronage and matronage of the seven other family members or 'Rishis'.

Another interesting set of verses from the Vedas, which are important to the interpretation of the above quote, are:


...[Indra] hast rescued the kind, and hast won.. the Soma juice; that

thou [Indra] hast let loose the seven rivers to flow. (80)

Indra sets the heavenly luminaries free from concealment; he the

performer of good deeds, enables the waters to flow, for the benefit of

his worshipper.

Through his power, the seven rivers [seven persons] sport; since he

has opened (a way for them) [allowed procreation and eugenic controls]

by his thunder-bolt...

...he has replenished the four rivers of sweet water spread over the surface

of the earth. (81)


In the above, the seven rivers appear to typify the seven divine Rishis; the seven additional persons who accompanied Indra through the chaos of creation or the seven "breaths" of life and fertility mentioned earlier. Now, the loosing of these seven rivers seems to allude to some kind of potential population expansion, relative to seven distinct lines of people.

Relative to genesis, the Rig Veda's archaic symbolism reveals major contentions and an opposition against Indra's commission and re-establishment(re-colonization) program. The earliest known legendary antagonist of Indra was the villainous Chief Vritri, the corrupt leader of the Asura people, who some ethnologists identify as the ancestors of the Assyrians. This was the Indraic opposition. Vritri is known under the title of "Ahi", which identifies him politically as "the accumulator of vapours" or of moistures. It is recorded in the following:


The Legend of the slaying of the evil Viritri: [The hymn is addressed

to Indra.]

1) I declare the former valorous deeds of Indra, which the thunderer has achieved: he clove the cloud; he cast the waters down to earth; he broke away for the torrents of the mountains. 2) He cleaved the cloud, seeking refuge on the mountain: Twashtri sharpened his far-whirling bolt: the flowing waters quickly hastened to the ocean; like cows hastening to their calves. 3) Impetuous as a bull, he quaffed the Soma juice: he drank of the libation at the triple sacrifice. Maghavan took his shaft, the thunder-bolt, and, with it, struck the first-born of the clouds. 4) Inasmuch, Indra, as thou hast divided the first-born of the clouds, thou hast destroyed the delusions of the deluders; and, then, engendering the Sun, the Dawn, the Firmament, thou hast not left an enemy to oppose thee. 5) With his vast destroying thunder-bolt, Indra struck the darkling mutilated Vritra. As the trunks of trees are felled by an axe, so lies Ahi, prostrate on the earth. 6) The arrogant Vritri, as if unequalled, defies Indra, the mighty hero, the destroyer of many, the scatterer of foes;--he has not escaped the contact of the fate of Indra's enemies. The foe of Indra has crushed the banks of the rivers. 7) Having neither hand nor foot, he defied Indra, who struck him, with the thunder-bolt, upon his mountain-like shoulder, like one emasculated who pretends to virility: then Vritri, mutilated of many members, slept. 8) The waters, the delight of the minds of men, flow over him, recumbent on this earth; as a river bursts through its broken banks. Ahi has been prostrated beneath the feet of the waters, which he, by his might, has obstructed. 9) The Mother was above the son underneath; and Danu slept with her son, like a cow with her calf. 10) The waters carry off the nameless body of Vritri, tossed into the midst of the never-stopping, never-resting currents. The foe of Indra has slept through a long darkness. 11) The waters, the wives of the destroyer, guarded by Ahi, stood obstructed, like the cows by Pani: but, by slaying Vritri, Indra set open the cave that had confined them. 12) When the single splendent Vritri returned the blow, which had been inflicted, Indra, by his thunder-bolt, becamest furious, like a horse's tail. Thou hast rescued the knee; thou hast won, hero, the Soma juice; thou hast let loose the seven rivers to flow. 13) Neither the lightning nor the thunder discharged by Vritri, nor the rain which he showered, nor the thunder-bolt, harmed Indra, when he and Vritri contended and Indra triumphed, also over other attacks. 14) When fear entered, Indra, into thy heart, when about to slay Vritri, what other destroyer of him didst thou look for, that alarmed, thou didst traverse ninety and nine streams, like a swift hawk? 15) Then, Indra, the wielder of the thunder-bolt, became sovereign of all that is moveable or immovable, or hornless and horned cattle; and, as he abides the monarch of men, he comprehended all things within him; as the circumference comprehends the spokes of a wheel.(82)


This is the Simon-pure counter position to the Indraic Constitution to "loose the waters of the seven rivers." He is further described in the various passages as "the first-born of the clouds", "the darkling", and "the foe of Indra", who has crushed the banks of the rivers.(83)


He smil'd; and, warbling in a softer mode,

Sang, the red light'ning, hail, and whelming rain

O'er Gocul green and Vraja's nymph-lov'd plain

By Indra hurl'd, whose altars ne'er had glom'd,

Since infant Christna rul'd the rustick train

Now thrill'd with terrour-Them the heav'nly child

Call'd, and with looks ambrosial smil'd

Then with one finger rear'd the vast Goverdhen,

Beneath whose rocky burden

On pastures dry the maids and herdsmen trod;

The Lord of thunder felt a mightier God!



In the conflict between Indra and Vritri, the latter "darkling" is seen withholding the flow of the waters [fluids of fertility] by "obstructing the feet [flow/movement] of the waters", , intentionally drying up the world's potential fruitation:


Hesh'd was ev'ry breezy pinion

Ev'ry stream his fall suspended:

Silence reign'd; whose sole dominion

Soon was rais'd, but soon was ended.


These seven rivers are also synonymous with the cows of Pani, which were imprisoned in a cave by this evil ruler. In the conflict, like the traditional rescue of the cows, Indra is shown slaying the evil Vritri, along with the villain's mother Danu, thus releasing therivers(cows) to flow. Dani was the wife of Kasyapa and was the progenitor of the contentious DANAVAS, or as the Vedic tradition suggests, the TITANS! Indra is shown throughout Vedic tradition, with the MARUTS[who some say are the Amorites], contending with Danava forces; to fulfill his divine commission.(84)

The commission of Indra, as designated in the symbolic phrase "the loosing of the rivers", is suggested by this writer, to be understood as the potential of fertility and population growth, the fruitation of the earth, the multiplication, dispersion and colonization of the seven-fold world to diverse places.

As mentioned before, the Vedic writings mention an opposition to this commission. the legendary evil Vritri is shown as having intentions of confounding this commission of Indra. The Vedas suggest that his purpose was to "dry up" or condense the world through his "evaporating" the waters of the rivers, that is, stop Indra's peopling the earth with different races and nations. He is said to "crush the banks of the rivers" and to "withhold the flow of their waters." This conclusion is extrapolated from different Vedic passages, which also address him as the "Susham", an appellation of Vritri meaning, "the drier-up of the world" and "the one who withholds the moistures" of fertility.(85)

It is also very interesting to note, that the termination syllable in the name of Susham is cognate with the Hebrew "Ham"! In other words, just as Indra had an opposition lead by Vritri, so Noah was opposed by the Babylonian conferate Ham. I believe the above legend has something to do with the Biblical curse of Noah on Ham or Canaan. Even through all the most probable 'confoundings', one notices two opposing forces, in both the Vedic and Biblical accounts. The one heroic side contends for distribution and diversity, while the other opposing side favors a "drying-up" or consolidation of the Nations and peoples. Whatever is the real case, in detail, the two stories are very similar.(R.V. 33:4,5, p.90 also 51:5-6.p.137)

In the myth, Indra slays the evil Vritra or Vritri along with the Asuras with the help of the Maruts[Amorites, the people of Martu] and defeats his non-sacrificial non-Vedic followers, the Sanakas[disregarders of the Vedic religion]. Verily, Indra "hast slain the wealthy barbarian with his adamantine bolt; he has singly assailed Vritri, although with auxiliaries (the Maruts) at hand". Perceiving the impending manifold destructiveness of the bow, the Sanakas, the neglectors of the Vedic sacrifices, contend with Indra, but then fled away with averted faces. Indra blew these disreguarders away from heaven, earth and the sky.(R.V. 51:5,p.136) Indra then opens the recepticle of the waters, and detained the evil ones, after slaying Vritri. He then makes the Sun visible!(R.V. 52:2,p.140-41). Then Indra stood with vigor like a mountain and protected his people.(R.V.52:14) Indra had finally loosed the waters that the evil Vritri had concealed(R.V.59:6). The names Agni and Varawanara, and Agni-Vaiswanara seem to be the names, in this section, of Indra himself. "I extol the greatness of that showerer of rain, whom men celebrate as the slayer of Vritri. The Agni-Vaiswanara, who slew the stealer of the waters, and sent them down upon the earth and clove the obstructing cloud."(R.V.61:7) As Indra is the thunder god of rain, everything in the world proceeds from this rain, or power of Indra. For Indra, as Vishnu, is the preserver and pervader of all the world. In this verse, according to the footnote, Vishnu is the personified sacrifice, who acquired the wealth of the Asuras, after which he concealed himself behind seven difficult passes or passages, hills or initiatory preparation days. "Quickly quaffing the libations, and devouring the grateful viands presented at the three daily sacrifices, which are dedicated to the creator of the world, he the prevader of the universe/world, stole the ripe treasures of the Asuras: the vanquisher of his foes, the hurler of the thunder-bolt, encountering, pierced the cloud."(R.V.61:10-11) Indra by his vigour, cut to pieces with his thunder-bolt, Vritri, the absorber [of fertility], and set free the preserving waters, like the cows recovered from the thieves; and consonant to the wishes of the giver of the oblation, grants him food."(R.V.61:12) "Hurl thy thunder-bolt against Vritri, and sever his joints as butchers cut up a cow, that the rains may issue from him, and the waters flow over the earth."(R.V.62:2,3.) "For through him, our forefathers, the Angirasas, worshipped him, one knowing the foot marks, recovered the stolen cows." "When the search was set on foot by Indra and the Angirasas, Sarama secured food for her young. Then Brihaspati[Brahma]slew the devourer and rescued the King; and the gods, with the cattle proclaimed their joy aloud."(R.V.53) "Indra, when thou slewest Vritri, and put to flight the Dasyus in battle(the enemies of Kutsa, barbarians, one not Hindu or Sacrificial).


Straight from sev'n winds immortal Genii flew,

Green Varuna, whom foamy waves obey,

Bright, Vahni flaming like the lamp of day,

Kuvera sought by all, enjoyed by few,

Marut, who bids the winged breezes play,

Stern Yama, ruthless judge, and Isa cold

With Nairrit mildly bold:

They with the ruddy flash, that points his thunder,

Rend his vain bands asunder.

Th' exulting God resumes his thousand eyes,

Four arms divine, and robes of changing dyes.



In slaying Vritri, the hero Indra succeeds in fulfilling his divine commission through releasing the captive flow of the seven rivers, previously dehydrated by the villain Vritri. In the releasing of this flow of water, the potential to fertilize and re-establish the earth, and to increase the population comes to the foreground:


Thee, darter of the swift blue bolt, he sang;

Sprinkler of genial dews and fruitful rains

O'er hills and thirsty plains!

When through the waves of war thy charger sprang,

Each rock rebell'd and each forest rang,

Till vanquish'd Asuras felt avenging pains.

Send o'er their seats the snake, that never dies,

But waft the virtuous to thy skies!


Indra, in these Vedic passages, is acclaimed "the blender of all things" and "the renderer of all things visible.(86) This reminds us of the Biblical Noah who was the synthesizer and organizer of all political and cultural establishments. Indra also is depicted as the first to establish Eight Points upon the horizon and the Four Quarters of the earth. He is also acclaimed as the one who opened up the sources of the rivers, or the one who had the seven progenitors began their procreating the races. Indra is revealed through monogenetic methods to be the duplication of the Biblical Noah.

Like Noah, Indra appears to establish districts or points upon the globe, or what we may discern as linguistic divisions, cultures, nations or tribes of people. According to the eight-fold pattern of the genetics of the Flood survivors. Noah is said to have "divided the earth: into inheritances for his three sons. He gave them three land allotments, with his own equaling the fourth. In this sense, Noah 'Quartered' the earth, according to a symbolic principle, just as Indra is shown doing the same. This quartering may have some relationship to the four males of the Ark.(87)



Just as Mashya and his wife are shown as propagating the races of mankind, in Persian myth, so, the Hindu and Biblical accounts show Noah and his sons propagating the races. In the Hindu Brahmanda Purana, Vishnu-I(Indra) or Narayana is shown as floating on a lotus flower, which float upon the coils of the sea serpent Shesha; here Brahma is shown being given birth to by these two:


That flower, Brahma, grew from the navel of the Lord Narayana

(Indra), as he slept afloat upon the waters [of the Flood], lying upon

the white coils of the endless serpent Shesha. (88)


According to some symbolist's interpretations, (89) the poetic imagery in this puranic verse should be interpreted to mean: That Lord Narayana or Vishnu with his lotus flower, is Noah and his Ark afloat upon the waters of the Flood. Secondly, the birth of Brahma from Lord Narayana-Vishnu is the emerging of Shem from the Ark and from Noah's leadership on the Ark. Last, the Lotus Flower upon the coils of Shesha, is the Ark afloat upon the Flood waters.



From the foregoing, we may conclude that Indra or Vishnu-Narayana, the First Fish Incarnation of Matsya, is our Biblical Noah, the Father of Brahma-Shem and is the first All-Father and sovereign ruler of the post-diluvian world. He is the First Solar ruler and King according to Hindu accounts. He was the First to emerge from out of the Ark or Lotus, from the Chaos Flood of ancient times. He gave birth, along with his sons, to the first races and nations to populate the earth. That the modern races and nations today have their origin in this small family of eight survivors. Indra, like Noah, was the first to contend against certain political oppositions arising from the evil Vritri-Ham(or Canaan), who preferred to "dry-up" or centralize the worlds populations under one empire. Noah was the first, as the Indra myth concludes, to be given the dispensational plans to re-establish independent cultures and nations and to colonize the earth. Indra is to the East Indians, as Noah is to the Christian and Jewish people, the First father and King of humanity.


For MAHAVISHNU (No.42) see above section.


ALULIM(No.1) and NINAZU(No.41):

The second in the series of Noahic identifications is the Sumerian god Alulim, the god of the Underworld. He was the founder of the ancient Mesopotamian city of Eridu, which was later usurped and ruled by the god Nudimmud or Ea. He is also cross-referenced and identified as the god Ninazu. The identities of these two supposedly distinct gods, when compounded together, become the original model for the Babylonian god Apsu, the god of the Abyss and the Waters of Creation. Alulim etymologically appears to also be the original for the later Phoenician god Alilu or Elium. Alilu-Elium appears to fill in the missing Grecian paternity of Ouranus, whose progenitors appear somewhat confused and misplaced. These two gods, Alilu and Elium, are described by the Phoenicians as begetting Ouranus and a daughter named Ge or Gaia. In the Orphic Creation myth, it is Phanes-Dionysus or the later Protogones that begets Ouranus and Gaea after his emerging from the cosmic Silver Egg. These two offspring were the renowned Heaven god and Mother-Earth goddess of the Greek Pantheon--Ouranus and Ge.(90) The Phoenician Alilu is also recorded as the First King to rule at the ancient city of Bablos along with his Queen and consort Bruth or Beiruth. The Hittites remember this ruler god under the name of Alalus, who once ruled in heaven until he was dethroned and banished by the evil King Anus. King Anus usurped Alalus' throne and ruled from Heaven for nine years. The evil Anus is shown later doing battle with the hero opponent Kumarbi. In the Greek myths, Ouranus is depicted as the father of Cronus. Biblically, they are respectfully Ham and Canaan. Greek myths are predominately silent about Noah, except for such figures as Deucalion. Nevertheless, the etymological similarities, in conjunction with the Phoenician myths of Bablos, appear to substantiate the Alulim-Alilu-Elium identification equation, thus showing a close connection between the Sumerian and Old Canaanite-Phoenician traditions. The comparisons are as follows:




1) Alulim = Alilu-Elium = Alalus = Dagon = Chaos (Deucalion)

The sons of the above god(s) also match up genealogically and in some cases, etymologically:

2) Anu-I = Ouranus = Anus = - = Ouranus

3) Enlil = El = Kumarbi = - = Cronus

4) Ea-Enki = - = - = - = Poseidon


According to the Poseidon-Sidon equation, which will be discussed in a later chapter, Alulim-Elium would be the patriarch Noah; Ouranus, Noah's son Ham; and Cronus, the cursed Canaan, the father of Sidon. The Phoenician Elium, the father of Ouranus is the link to the Sumerian Alilum and his identity as the Biblical Noah and consequently, Ouranus' identity as Ham.



In 1872 the assyriologist George Smith announced that he had found an account of the Deluge very similar to the Biblical Deluge of Genesis among the tablets of Ashurbanipal's library. What he had actually found was a section of text from the Gilgamesh Epic. The hero of the Epic is King Gilgamesh of Uruk (Biblical Erech), who goes in search for the secret of immortality. In the Epic story, Gilgamesh's friend Enkidu dies. His death affects Gilgamesh deeply, causing him grief. Gilgamesh is horrified and finally realizes what death is. In response to Enkidu's death, and to conquer his fear of his own death, Gilgamesh decides to go in search for the only being that ever survived 'death' and gained immortality, the man Utnapishtim "the Far-Away". Gilgamesh makes a long journey through many obstacles and finally crosses the Great Sea [the Mediterranean?], the Great Sea of Death, to meet Utnapishtim. Gilgamesh goes to Dilmun [the Island of Cyprus?(91)], the home of Utnapishtim. Some scholars identify this sea the Persian Gulf and the island, Bahrein, while others cll them the Dead Sea and the Sinai Peninsula.(92) The commonly accepted theory is that these locations are the Indian Ocean and the Indus River Valley. "the place where the Sun rises."(93)

When Gilgamesh finally meets Utnapishtim, the Flood Hero recounts to him the "secrets of the Gods", which is the story if the Great Flood. The following Genesis-like story is what Utnapishtim recounts to Gilgamesh:

At some time in the past, when Shuruppak was already an ancient city, the gods decided to send a deluge to destroy the sinful human race:


That city was ancient, as were the gods within it, when their heart led

the great gods to produce the flood. There were Anu, their father,

Valiant Enlil, their councilor, Ninurta, their assistant, Ennuge, their

irrigator. And Ninigiku-Ea was also present with them; (94)


Now, the only god that took pity on mankind was Ea. Secretly speaking to his favorite human, Utnapishtim, Ea advises him to escape the coming flood destruction by building a large ship:


Man of Shuruppak, son of Ubar-Tutu, tear down this (your) house

and build a ship. Give up all your possessions and seek thou life. (95)


Utnapishtim takes Ea's advice and builds a ship, stocks it with provisions and then waits for the flood. He enters the ark with his family and the flood comes:


The gods were frightened by the deluge, and, shrinking back, they

ascended to the heaven of Anu. The gods cowered like dogs and

crouched against the outer wall. Ishtar cried out like a woman in

travail...The Anunnaki gods wept with her, the Gods, all humbled,

sat and wept... (96)


Six days passed and on the seventh day the terrible flood subsided. The ark comes to a rest on Mount Nisir, the Babylonian Ararat. Utnapishtim opens the ship's window and lets out a series of birds to scan for land, just like the Biblical Noah. A dove, then a swallow and finally a raven is released. When the raven does not return, Utnapishtim realizes that land has finally appeared. He then pours out a libation on top of the mountain and offers a sacrifice of cane, cedarwood and myrtle. Then "the Gods smelled the sweet savor and crowed like flies about the sacrificer."(Gilgamesh: Lines 159-161) Ishtar and Ea were delighted, but Enlil was angry that Utnapishtim had been saved from the flood that was meant to destroy all of mankind.


Enlil was wroth; He was filled with wrath over the Igigi gods:

"Has some living soul escaped? No man was to survive the

destruction! " (97)


Ea was then found guilty of helping Utnapishtim, But he pleaded his case so well, that even Enlil was touched. Enlil decides to let it all go and drop the charges. Enlil then enters the great ship of Utnapishtim and blesses him and his wife for what they had done. He then gives them the gift of the likeness of the gods and eternal life.(98)


Holding me by the hand, Enlil took me aboard. He took my wife

board too, and made her kneel by my side. Standing between us, he

touched our foreheads to bless us: "Hitherto, Utnapishtim has been

but human. Henceforth, Utnapishtim and his wife shall be like unto

us gods. (99)


The eleventh tablet of the Semitic Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh is of Sumerian origin and finds its counterpart in other older Sumerian accounts. The name Gilgamesh is Sumerian and means 'The Far Distant'.(100) And, in its origins, the story is based on a number of Sumerian ones, such as the Flood Legend of Ziusudra, who also builds a ship and escapes a flood.(101) The Noah figures name varies, for the Babylonians called him Utnapishtim, 'The Faraway". The Sumerians called him Zuisudra or Xisuthrus, the son of Otiartes, which means 'His Life-Days Prolonged'(102) or 'the Son of Shuruppak. He was the 10th Anti-Diluvian King from King Alorus of Babylonia.(103) In another text called 'The Atra-Hasis', the flood hero is named Atra-Hasis, 'The Exceedingly Wise'; probably a nickname of Utnapishtim himself. The story of Ziusudra is an almost exact duplicate of the other accounts or at the most, the original of Utnapishtim. After man was created and lived for awhile, he began to multiply and create noise that bothered the gods, especially Enlil. Enlil persuades the other gods to wipe out mankind with a great flood. Enki(Ea) though, a member of the gods economy, favored Zuisudra and quickly devised a plan to warn his friend. He tells him to build a ship and to preserve himself and his family in it. Zuisudra also does exactly what Utnapishtim did. He is also saved from the flood and is given eternal life for the same reasons: For saving all living things, especially mankind, from destruction.(104)

James Pritchard says, in his 'Ancient Near Eastern Texts', that the name Atra-Hasis, the old Babylonian Atramhasis, means "Exceedingly Wise", and is associated with more than one hero of the epic literature of Mesopotamia. The Epic of Gilgamesh applies it to Utnapishtim, while the poems of Etana and Adapa make use of it also. More specifically, however, the name is associated with a large epic cycle dealing with man's sins and his consequent punishment through plagues and a deluge. This cycle thus provides a parallel to the Biblical motivation for the flood and was originally named "When God, man..." Today, it is called the Atra-Hasis Epic. The story of Atra-Hasis runs as follows.

The gods became divided over the issue of slavery and work. The gods were too burdened and decided to create man to lift the work load. The blood of the victim "We-ila" is used along with some clay to create man. Man is created and multiplies, but becomes very troublesome. Enlil is disturbed by their "noise" and decides to have them destroyed. He complains to the other gods and they join the plan. Enlil decrees plagues and other punishments, but to no avail. Finally, it is decreed that man is to be destroyed by a flood. Ea hears about it and being favorable towards Atrahasis, tells him about the flood and suggests that he build a ship for escape. Like the other Noah figures, he builds the ship and escapes the flood. EA(Enki) is again blamed for man's escape, but everything is resolved through some negotiations.(105)

Obviously, all these flood surviving heros, including Etana and Adapa derive from some common mythic (historical) source--the Biblical Noah.





Before heaven had been made.

and the earth formed, only

primordial Apsu and Mother

Tiamat existed. --Enuma-elis Epic


Another identification of Noah in Gentile mythology is Apsu, the Babylonian god of the Watery Abyss. Apsu's relative position to Choas exposes his identity as the Hebrew Genesis Noah. He comes out of and is associated with a great expanse of water. He is also associated with the consort Tiamat, who beget all the gods and mankind. This identity will become more apparent as we precede in this study.

The Babylonians retain stories about Apsu and the other gods in their various myths. The Creation Epic of Marduk called the Enuma-elis is one of the major accounts describing their events.

In the first instances of the Creation story the only gods extant were already 'self-existent primordial Apsu, Tiamat and Mummu, Apsu's vizier, companion and advisor:


When the heaven and the earth below had not yet been named; when

the primordial Apsu, their begetter and Mummu and Tiamat, who

gave birth to them, still mingled their waters together, while no land

or pasture or reed marshes existed; nor yet been called names or

had their destinies fixed. Now, it was at this time that the gods

were created within them. (106)


This passage refers to all the heaven, the earth and all the gods, as created from primordial Apsu, their 'begetter' and Tiamat, who gave birth to them all. Apsu and Tiamat thus, are the Babylonian Divine Creator parents. They are in other passages, "the two great seas", who existed in the beginning when all was water.

After Apsu's initial treatment in the preliminary creation he is referred to under the distinction "the Abyss". The myths and legends depersonalized him and remember him in their references as the Abyss and as the "great expanse of water', 'the great Apsu'. Like the Sumerian Ninazu, Apsu is an underworld god. He is called 'the underworld ocean', while his wife Tiamat is 'the Primeval Choas'. He is also the Babylonian-Assyrian Water-god of the Abyss. Tiamat is also identified as a personification of the Sea. The name Tiamat is a common word for 'sea' in the Akkadian language: "tiamtum" and "tamtum". That she is in fact the Sea can be seen from the mythologist's opening lines of the Enuma-elis.(107) The Babylonian word Tiamat or Tiamtu(Tisallat) is the original of Berossus' "Thalath". It is the original of the root "tehuta", translated in Assyrian "sea-water".(108) Thalath, translated into Greek means "Thalassa" or 'sea'. This was later the greek name for the woman named "Omorka", mentioned by Berossus, who ruled over all creatures.(109) Omorka is derived, some say, from the Akkadian word 'emaruukka', meaning "flood", which occurs in the Enuma-elis in connection with Tiamat. She was the royal Flood or Chaos consort of Apsu and received this symbolic name obviously in tribute of the great chaos of waters, which she had witnessed. Like Noah's wife, Tiamat appears to have been a part of this aquatic intrigue and was consequently attributed with the title of 'Royal-Flood Matriarch'. Tiamat retains this memory of the flood in her designation "The Serpent", a symbol for the Sea; "The Sea", and "The Sea Serpent". For, she was the royal wife and lady of the Chaos of Waters and consort of Apsu, the King of the Watery Abyss.(110)

There are two parts to the creation of the gods from Apsu: A seemingly non-genetic creation or, as the text states, 'formation' of the gods Lahmu and Lahamu and then Anshar and Kishar. Then secondly, of a third generation of Anu and of the fourth generation of Ea. All four 'formations' or creations are described as "generations". The first two are generalized and questionable, while the third and fourth appear more formally 'genetic', being designated by the term "first-born". There is no mention of the god Mummu until verse I:30, yet, the word or name is used in verse 3 as "mother"; a designation title for Apsu's wife Tiamat. Verse 4 seems to read: "...Mummu-Tiamat, she who gave birth to them[gods] all..."(111) The question now, is whether to put an "and" between these two words. For, the following verse distinguishes the two. "They (Apsu and Mummu) went and sat down before Tiamat..."(v.33) Apsu's vizier Mummu is distinguished in this verse from Tiamat, "Mother Tiamat", or "Mummu-Tiamat". In the first existence, the Sea-Chaos or Sea-Water is called Mummu-Tiamatu" or "um-ma-tiamatu" as in her later name of "um-ma-hu-bur" or Mother Hubur. This name combines the two names Moymis and Tauthe mentioned by Damascius. Mummu is probably connected with the Hebrew word for 'confusion', equivalent to Umun and the Hebrew word for noise or tumult. In the second case, Mummu is clearly distinguished as Apsu's Vizier in contrast to Tiamat: "Then Apsu...called [his vizier] Mummu, and said to him:"(v.29-30) According to the structure of the epic the first 'uncreated' generation was the already existent generation of Apsu, Tiamat and Mummu.(v.1-9)

The second generation of the gods was Lahmu and Lahamu. The third generation, supposedly the offspring of the above, were Anshar and Kishar. The paternal lineage seems to read in the order of: Apsu-Mummu-Lahmu-and Anshar. Yet, another genealogical structure can be inferenced. Verses 1-9 mention a time when only Apsu and Tiamat existed. The expression "brought into being" suggests, in the context of Genesis, that the two had not designated any "heaven, earth, lands or marshes" for any of the gods. Nothing had been named according to "their families, languages or nations". The reason is, that there was no large population of people(gods) in those days. The Enuma-elis suggests only two progenitors--Apsu and Tiamat. Verses 10-13 do not suggest any absolute 'genetic' ties, but only gives an adopted or given context. They are just "created within them"(v.9).

Verses 79-84, which deals with Marduk, uses the terms "created" and "begat" and "bore". Yet, the earlier part of the Tablet-I uses "formed" and "brought-forth". All these gods--Apsu, Tiamat, Mummu and the other two pairs--appears already extant, needing only to be formed or created. These words are suspect of avoiding genetic meanings. The first hint at a genetic relationship is with Anu, for the text says,


Anu was their heir presumptive, the rival of his fathers: Yea, Anu

his (?) first-born, equaled Anshar.(v.14-15)

Anu seems to be a 'son' of one of the four: Apsu, Mummu, Lahmu or Anshar.


Notice the following statement:


...Anshar and Kishar were created; they...lived many days...Anu was

their heir presumptive...Yea, Anu, his first-born, equaled Anshar.


Anshar seems to be the progenitor of Anu, thus the genealogy could run as follows:


1) Apsu & Tiamat & Mummu

2) Lahmu, Lahamu, Kishar and Anshar; with

3) Anu as Anshar's Son.


Verses 16-20 verify this structure, when they mention the direct 'genetic' offspring of Anu, who is called Nudimmud. the earth and water god, later called Ea/Enki. In verse 19 he is shown as the grandson of Anshar! In verses 72-84 Ea is shown defeating Apsu and then building himself a shrine. It says that Ea and his consort Damkina(v.81-84) begat Marduk their son and the new ruler King. Thus we have the following lineage:


1) Apsu

2) Anshar

3) Anu

4) Marduk


The close proximity of Apsu and Mummu identifies Mummu, over all the rest, as the Biblical Patriarch Shem. The beginning of the account says that only Apsu and Tiamat existed, with a 'gloss' suggesting that Mummu was also there in the beginning. Mummu does not formally come into the picture until verse 30, but this leaves the account suspect at neglecting the paternity of Mummu. But, it may be supposed, by his association with Apsu and Tiamat, that Mummu was also "formed" or "created"(designated) as well, for Tiamat "...bore them all".Thus, the genealogy could run,


1) Apsu & Tiamat

2) Mummu, Lahmu

3) - Anshar

4) - Anu

5) - Ea


Since there is no proof for Lahmu as being the progenitor of Anshar, the list could therefore read,


1) Apsu & Tiamat

2) Mummu, Lahmu, Anshar

3) - - Anu

4) - - Ea


Lahamu and Kishar are apparently the consorts of Lahmu and Anshar: "Anu was their heir..." Anshar was Anu's father and Kishar was thus his mother. With Apsu as the Biblical Noah, the three "formed" ones Lahmu, Mummu and Anshar must be the three sons of Noah. Mummu appears to be the close companion of Apsu and, therefore, cannot be Ham. Ham and Canaan were accomplices in the genesis defilement of Noah, with Canaan receiving the Noahic curse for Ham's bad deed. Shem received the blessing over Japheth, whereas Japheth only "dwelt in the tents of Shem". Shem was closer to Noah through the blessing of Yahweh. Thus, Shem is more likely to be equated with Mummu, than is Ham or Japheth. This leaves Anshar and Lahmu to be identified.

Apsu and Mummu are shown opposed by Anshar's line under the leadership of Ea. In another section(112) Ea/Enki is identified with Poseidon, the Greek Sea God, or Sidon son of Canaan. He was a grandson of Ham the same way Ea was the grandson of Anshar. The Bible suggests that Ham, Canaan and Sidon opposed Noah at the Tower of Babel. Therefore, Anshar fits the Biblical identity of Ham, son of Noah(Apsu). Lahmu is mush less active as a participant in the myth. In the Bible, Japheth also plays a lesser role as far as data is concerned, as well as historical value. He is less emphasized and appears to have migrated away from the Mid-East towards the "Islands in the West". Lahmu, therefore, could very well correlate with the Biblical Japheth. The identities then could run as follows:







The Enuma-elis Marduk Creation Epic seemed to be a Babylonian record of the Hamite genealogy of Genesis. It has a deficiency in the Shemite Lineage, obviously because of its Anshar/Ea/Marduk polarity. The Hamites favored their lineage over that of Shem's as more authoritative and blessed in the creation of the New World order. In this epic, the Hamites betray their misguided political stance in their honoring Marduk and in their degradation of Apsu, Tiamat and Mummu. This is also made evident from the subjugation of "Elu-Bel"(Shem) to Anshar, as a son of Anshar after the fact of the subjugation of Apsu and Mummu. The Sleep Spell of Ea myth, and the rise to power of Marduk are definitive. The reconstructed genealogy should therefore run as such:




Apsu & Tiamat


Anshar, Lahmu, Mummu

(Enu, Kaptu, Bel)







Anu ("first-born") Sin (the Moon God of Ur)


Nudimmud Samas (the Sun God)



Marduk (Bel)




The final identification are:


1. Apsu = Noah

2. Anshar = Ham

3. Mummu = Shem

4. Lahmu = Japheth

5. Anu = Canaan

6. Ea/Enki = Sidon(Poseidon)

7. Marduk = Shelah

8. Nebo = [Probably Eber]





The third most recognized Noah type figure is the Greek mythological Deucalion the survivor of the Hellenic flood tradition. He is recorded in the traditions as an anachronistic Noah type of figure. The Greeks myths state that Deucalion was the son of Prometheus. He is said to have married Pyrrha the daughter of Epimetheus, upon whom he begat Hellen, who gave his name to Greece or Grecia. Deucalion was a Cretan(113), was King of Phthia(114) and is identified as being the same figure as Dionysus.(115)

Deucalion's story is short and simple, yet the argumentation’s and controversies he has raised are long and complicated. The legends and myths say he reigned in Thessaly during a time when wickedness, vice and evil increased, notwithstanding the virtuous examples of their King and Queen. Deucalion's flood was caused by Zeus'(Jupiter's) anger against the sons of Lycaon, who was the son of Pelasgus the civilizer of Arcadia. Their crimes included child(boy) sacrifices and insult against Zeus in serving him the 'guts' of humans and animals as food. In returning to Olympus from this disgusting feast, Zeus looses a great flood upon the earth, which wipes out the entire human race except for Deucalion and Pyrrha. Some others that were saved from the flood were Megarus, a son of Zeus; Cerambus of Pelion and the inhabitance of Parnassus founded by Parnasus, the son of Poseidon. According to Genesis-10 monogenesis, this story is a late corruption invented to blur the original Noahic Flood tradition. For, too many 'late' figures are placed in too old of a flood setting.

After the flood, Deucalion and Pyrrha, who found themselves upon Mount Parnasssus [Etna, Athos, or Othrys], went down to the shrine of Themis and pleaded for the renewal of mankind and Zeus, hearing their praying voices, sent Hermes with the assurance of fulfillment of their request. Themis appears to them and tells them to throw their mother's bones behind them. Both Deucalion and Pyrrha reasoned that Themis meant the bones of Mother-Earth, and instead, picked up stones lying along the river and tossed them over their shoulders. From Deucalion and Pyrrha's stones came men and women. Thus, mankind was renewed. The flood proved to be of no avail, for the surviving Parnassians migrated to Arcadia and revived the abominations of Lycaon.(116)

Deucalion seems to be an anachronism for an earlier mythos. Mr. Graves says that this Deucalion myth was apparently brought from Asia by the Hellads and had the same origin as the tradition of the Biblical Noah. It obviously records the Mesopotamian flood legend of about the Third Millennium B.C. and an Autumnal New Years Feast of Babylonia, Syria and Palestine as exemplified in the Gilgamesh Epic's Utnapishtim pouring out wine to the Ark builders.(117)

Deucalion resembles very clearly the Sumerian flood hero Xisuthrus(Ziusudra) recorded by the Chaldean historian Berossus from the ancient Near Eastern myths. The Greek myth is a late borrowing from the Phoenicians and the Jews (the Habira), yet reveals that an ancient flood myth has been superimposed over a later local flood occurring somewhere in Northern Greece(118), probably in the district of Dodana.(119) To explain the later Deucalion anachronism, Graves suggests, that in his genealogical placement five generations down from Ouranus, Deucalion, a grandson of Iapetus, represents not Noah, but the eponymous ancestor of a Canaanite tribe--probably the Pelasgians--which brought the Mesopotamian flood legend to Greece.(120)

Deucalion appears to be a reflection of the character Dionysus, who voyaged in "a New-Moon Boat' and battled the Aegean pirates. Mr. graves says, that Dionysus is in fact Deucalion.(121) The following artificial genealogy, by Edith Hamilton, combines at least two traditional lineages: the Hellenic of Ouranian lineage and the Iapetus lineage [i.e.Japheth's Line]. The additional superimposition is Hellen. Thus, the genealogy is composed of three paternal lineages: Ouranus, Iapetus and Hellen. Hellen is identified as a duplicate tradition of Ouranus under a different name. The genealogy runs as follows:




Ouranus + wife Gaea


Ocean + wife Tethys



Prometheus Atlas Epimetheus + wife Pandora


Ariadne Deucalion + wife Pyrrha




In conclusion, Deucalion historically is apparently not the Biblical Noah, but only a later figure that acquired the Noahic flood myth as a person memorial based upon a local flood event. He only seems to have acquired Noahic symbolisms because of personal heroism. He is actually an anachronism for Noah--the real greek Noah figure lived some five or more generations anterior to the times of Deucalion, as the genealogy itself suggests. Yet, Deucalion is symbolically the Greek version of Noah. Whether Deucalion is an actual son or an adopted 'anachronistic' son of Prometheus is still debatable. His likelihood of being a genetic son is questionable, in the light of Hellenes being the son of Deucalion. Hellenes is a duplicate of Ouranus the Greek version of Ham. hence, Deucalion, in this tradition, appears as Noah.