THE SECOND GENERATION OF THE HEAVEN GOD (6-10)
The second generation of the Sons of the Gods, appear on the comparative chart as the sons of the Primordial Fathers of the individual traditions. They are Anu-I the assumed son of Alilum; Anshar the apparent offspring of Apsu; Ouranus the son of Deucalion(Dionysus); Kama(Sunda) a speculative figure, who is theoretically a son of Indra through internal comparative evidences; and the Hittite King Anus the son of Alalus, the Sumerian-Phoenician Alilum-Elium. A biography of each follows and a comparative analysis is made at the end of the chapter. A conclusion follows showing the proposed Hebrew patriarchal identification of the Heaven Gods.
ANU-I (No.6) THE SUMERIAN HEAVEN GOD:
The first entry in the selection of the "sons" is the Sumerian heaven God Anu-I. The Sumerian pantheon positions Anu as the highest of all the gods, yet, in significance, distinguishes him as less important than the other gods like Enki and Enlil. Because of the close proximity of the two cultures, the Sumerian and the Babylonian, a distinction and clarification must be made in the names of the gods, such as with Anu. The Sumerian Anu is distinguished from the Babylonian Anu because they both differ in genealogical positions relative to the original First-Father Creator God. The Sumerian Anu is recorded in the texts of the Babylonian myths as originally under the name of Anshar. The Babylonian Anu, the son of Anshar, though, is actually an alternative 'adoptive' name for the older Sumerian Enlil, son of Anu-I It appears that between the two closely associated traditions, Sumerian Anu-I becomes the Babylonian Anshar, while his son Enlil adopts his name and becomes Anu-II, the son of Anshar. Anu-I of Sumerian tradition, therefore, appears to take a background position in importance, allowing room for the expansion of Enlil's(Anu-II) new administration. In the two pantheons the original primeval father god takes an even more remote position in the memory of the chroniclers. The genealogy charts should run as follows:
SUMERIAN BABYLONIAN HEBREW
1. Alilum = Apsu = Noah
2. Anu-I Anshar Ham
3. Enlil Anu-II Canaan
4. Enki Ea/Nudimmud Sidon
5. Shulpae Marduk/Ea-II Shelah
Anu's name is associated with "Heaven" and is cognate with the Greek Heaven God Ouranus. He appears somewhat obscure and is not prominent in the lists and texts. The genealogy of the Sumerian myths and the Babylonian Epic of Creation trace this title name of Anu back to Apsu and Alilum the Underworld 'Ocean' or 'Water' God and to his consort Tiamat the Primeval Chaos. Anu lived in the third heaven and was called
"Father" and "King of the Gods". His principle seat of worship was at the ancient city of Uruk(Erech). His earliest consort on record was Antu the Earth. She was an Earth-Mother very similar, if not identical, to Ouranus' consort Ge or Gaea. Antu was later replaced by the goddess consort Innina or Ishtar, the Sumerian Inanna. Anu and Antu, like Ouranus and Gaea, were supposed as the progenitors of the Underworld Gods, the Anunnaki. Anu's sacred animal was the bull, which helps to depict his animosity towards mankind.
ANSHAR (No.7) THE BABYLONIAN SON OF APSU:
The Babylonian Anshar, who is apparently the son of Apsu and Tiamat, is an even more obscure figure. He is figured only as a main element in the ethnological and genealogical listings in the first few verses of the Creation epic, the Epic of Marduk. Yet, he is a very important genealogical linkage in connecting Apsu with the later generations of Anu, Ea and Marduk.
OURANUS (No.8) THE GREEK HEAVEN GOD:
The best genealogical key for the reconstruction of early Noahic genetics is the Titan Ouranus, the Sky and Heaven God of Hellenic tradition. Some mythic fragments call him Ogygia, while others call him Coelus. The Phoenicians record him under the name of Epigeus. The Phoenician historian Sanchoniatho lists other names for him: Anthchon and Elium, the Most High. Other Hellenic traditions give him such titles as Opion-II, while much older ones, such as the Pelasgian traditions, give him the name Inachus, the River God and the consort of Melia-the Ash Nymph. The key figure in this last genealogy is the son Phoroneus. In each case, except that of Inachus and Ophion, the consort wife is Mother-Earth Gaea. She is the Vesta, Terra, Titea and Dies of later Latin and Greek myth.
Greek myths record that Ouranus was the son of Mother-Earth, who emerged out of the Primeval Chaos in the Beginning. After the matriarchal rule of the Triple-Goddess, her scepter passed to Ouranus. This commenced the rule of patriarchialism.
Ouranus' name means "sky" or "heaven", which signifies his victory as First-Father. This means that he must have acquired it somehow from the original First-Father, who the Greeks do not mention. According to Mr. Graves, Ouranus is identified with the Hindu Pastoral God Varuna; though this name stems from the feminine "Ur-ana", Queen of the Mountains, Summer and Wind. The mythologies also depict Ouranus marrying his own mother, Mother-Earth Gaea, upon which he then begets the Titans. This happened after he had thrown the rebellious sons, the Cyclopes, into Tartarus. The account continues with Mother-Earth's anger at Ouranus; her separation from him and her new alliance with the Titans in the rebellion against Ouranus. Also, in the alliance is Cronus, the son of Ouranus. Cronus catches his father asleep and castrates him with a sickle-knife. The Titans then release the Cyclopes from their prison and award Cronus the title and rulership of his father.
The castration of Ouranus motif is not unique to just Greek myth. The same motif is actually derived from earlier mythological periods. The Cadmeans of Asia Minor brought this myth into Greece from their earlier Hittite friends, who respectively acquired it from the more ancient Hurrians or Biblical Horites. (See Appendix on The Palasgians)
KAMA (No.9) THE EAST INDIAN CUPID, GOD OF LOVE:
Kama, the Hindu Cupid, is said to have been a "mental creation" of the god Brahma; one born or birthed from god Brahma's heart.(1) He is best known as "The Destroyer of Peace", "The Bewilderer", "Lamp of Spring", "Crackling Fire", "World Teacher", "Stalk of Passion" and "He Who Conquers All". Kama was a beautiful god, for the myths have Brahma describe him as, a wonderfully beautiful being...He had a golden complexion...a round chest stout and firm...fine nose, thighs, hips, calves round and plump...blue wavelets of hair...eyebrows thick and tremulous..a face that shown like the full moon...chest hairy and broad...high stature...hands, eyes, face, legs and fingers all red in color...slender waist...fine teeth...eyes like pedals of the lotus...neck like a conch(shell)...very tall...and a loving glance that was very attractive,...and he was accompanied by the sentiment of Love. (2)
The Hindu myths , at first glance, are confusing as to who his parents were. Some say he was the son of Sraddha(3), while others say he was the offspring of Vishnu and Lakshmi.(4) Still others record him as the son of Maya.(5) The maternity problem is explained by the Hindus themselves. The names of the goddess Maya and Athimaya are only other names of Kakshmi. In a similar way, the names Darma and Vishnu are only names for the same father of Kama. The lineage runs accordingly as follows:
VISHNU(DARMA)====Lakshmi(Maya, Athimaya, Sraddha)
KAMA(Kamadeva, Cupid, Eros)===Rati(Venus)
Other references make him the son of Madhava. His "mind-born" or adopted genealogy is:
Dharma("Justice", mind-born son) w/wife Sraddha
Kama(Kamadeva, Sunda) and wife Rati
Dharma here appears to be Vishnu-I, the Hindu Noah. Kama is given other names and titles to designate his many mythological aspects and attributes. They are: Ananga(Bodiless), Kamdeo(love-desire), Makaraketu(a reference to his fish), Kandarpa(love), Kandapaketu, Pushadhanva(flowery bow), Mara, Smara(the ideal son of Maya), Mathan(sweetness, intoxication), Makara(a reference to his fish, the horned shark, the Zodiacal Capricorn) and Sunda.(7) kama is depicted riding on a parrot with a bow and bunch of arrows and attended by many friends, such as the Apsaras and Vasantas. One of his sons was named AniRudra. In the Ramayana Epic, in the chapter "The Hermitage of Kama", the God Kama is called Sunda. The significance of this is very important to comparing all the genealogies. It potentially makes Kama or Sunda's sons Pulastya and Marichi to be the same person. The two sons Visravas and Kasyapa also become identified together. William King, in his Heathen Account of the Gods(8) identifies Cupid with Eros! Yet, he shows that there were more than one Cupid. There are at least two. Traditionally, he is remembered as having no parents. But the myths do record conflicting accounts suggesting that there were more than two Cupids. When Chaos, Nox Erebus and Tartarus were in being, before earth, air or heaven, Nox produced an egg and hatched from her covering feathers came Eros, who some say is Cupid. Other accounts say Prous, the god of council and plenty, became drunk and begat Cupid by Penia, the goddess of Poverty. Another account says that he was the son of Coelus and Terra. Still another tradition suggests that he was the son of Zephyrus and Flora. He was also called Eros, the son of Jupiter and Venus, that is, Cupid-II. Cupid-II was called Anteros, the son of Venus and Mars. He was depicted crowned with roses, while holding a dolphin in his hands.
ANUS (No.10) THE HITTITE GOD OF MANLINESS:
In the Hittite myth, "Kingship In Heaven", the God Anus and earthly god becomes the new heaven god by overthrowing the older King Alalus. The story describes him as taking the throne from Alalus and claiming rulership over the heavenly cosmos, which he rules for nine years. The story continues to depict him battling the powerful Kumarbi, the God of Wisdom and the one time friend and loyalist of Anus. He was a defector to the side of Alalus. This defection caused the Anus-Kumarbi political conflict. Just as Cronus in the Greek myths dethroned and defeated Ouranus, Kumarbi battles for supremacy and defeats Anus. Anus is just like our Ouranus in Greek myth. He is also castrated by Kumarbi, which secures him the new title of King of Heaven. Later, the myth relates that Kumarbi is defeated by the loyalists of Anus. The Storm God--probably Taru--takes the kingship away from him. In the "Song of Ullikummis", Kumarbi continues his persistent campaign against the Anus faction and sends a rival against the Storm God. Imbaluris, the messenger of Kumarbi, sends a message to the Sea-Entity, saying, "Kumarbi must remain(regain)(title) Father of the Gods." Kumarbi's son Ullikummis thus wars with the Storm God and his Vizier Tasmisus, who is the Sun God, and also battles against the Goddess Ishtar. In the final conflict the Storm God defeats Ullikummis and the games end.
THE THIRD GENERATION OF THE AIR GOD:
11. ENLIL: THE SUMERIAN AIR GOD:
The god Enlil is the second listed in the Sumerian Pantheon in importance, yet he is the third in the line from the god Alilum, according to the genealogy. He was originally a Sumerian god, but was later adopted into the Semitic Babylonian pantheon. He appears in the Semitic pantheon as Anu-II and figures highly in the Creation Myth. His name means 'Wind' and/or 'storm', thus establishing his title of Wind (Air) God.
In the earliest times Enlil took precedence over all the other gods, but through time became a secondary god. In the older myths shadowed behind the Creation Myth, Anu appears to suffer disaster at the hands of the figure Enmesharra, who Enlil slays to avenge his father. Enlil is also depicted as hostile towards mankind and is shown creating a flood to destroy them. Enlil 1 was given the guardianship over the famous Tablets of Destiny, which also gave him power over the fate of all things. Enlil's consort was Ninlil and his chief minister was Nusku, the Fire-god, probably the Agni of Hindu traditions. He is "Father of the Gods" and "the Great Mountain". He is also remembered for his great deed of separating Heaven from Earth, just as the Greek Cronus. Enlil's cult center was located at Nippur in the Ekur Temple or House of the Mountain. Other locations were Lagash, Ashur and Borsippa. His personal abode lay to the North of Anu's abode, the location of which is still unknown. His astrological symbol is the constellation Pleiades, the Seven Circles.
Anu in the Babylonian Pantheon is the Semitic name for the Sumerian Enlil according to genealogical correlations. Enlil's son Inki (or Enki) is traditionally identified with the Babylonian Ea/Nudimmud. Ea is the son of Anu-II, hence the identification of Anu-II with the Sumerian Enlil. Anu is the apparent offspring of Anshar, the son of Apsu and Tiamat. Anu's father Anshar (also Enlil, Sumerian son of Alilum) therefore secures the identification of Apsu as Alilum. The genealogical correlations are as follows:
SUMERIAN BABYLONIAN HEBREW
1. Alilum Apsu Noah
2. Anu-I Anshar Ham
3. Enlil Anu-II Canaan
4. Enki Ea/Nudimmud Sidon
Cronus, who we shall call Cronus-I, because there is more than one mentioned in the myths, is another key figure. He follows genealogically from Ouranus and before his son Poseidon(Cronus-II). He was a Titan of the greatest magnitude, as is seen in the dethronement of his own father. Cronus after his conflict with his father, migrated in exile with six others to Syria and colonized the entire sea coast. In the 'Separation of Heaven and Earth' myth, Uranus and Ge are divorced. Ge/Gaea or Mother Earth, along with the Titans, are shown to have rebel against Ouranus. The exact reasons are not known. But, what is known, is that this rebellion by Ge and the Titans with Cronus culminates in the castration motif. Cronus throws the privy parts of Ouranus into the sea. This symbolizes the usurpation of the sovereignty and scepter of Ouranus by Cronus.
These myths can be traced back to the collapsed Hittite Empire, which in turn had obtained them from the more ancient Hurrians or biblical Horites, Hivites and Subarians. These were close kin to the Jebusites of Palestine, the Teutons and Italics. The ethnology chart shows that the myth was transmitted by the Jebusites, the sons of Zeus(Jebus), the Subarians and Hivites of Hephaestus(Hiv) or Horites, the Hittites of Heth, and then to the Greeks. This all points us back to a Mesopotamian origin.
The myths suggest in symbolic form that Cronus withdrew at the request of his mother from all reverence to his father Ouranus. The castration of Ouranus suggests his cutting out of a large portion of the Kingdom from Ouranus of which Ishtar/Astarte became a part of. It shows Cronus lessening the sovereign powers of Ouranus. Mr. Graves interprets this myth as a pre-Hellenic alliance between the settlers in the south and central Greece, who favored the Titans, and those of the Northern Hellenic invaders. Another more biblical explanation for this mythos is that within this historical trace memory there is a faint memory of Canaan's resentment at being cursed by Noah for what his father Ham had done. The Poseidon-Sidon equation makes this last proposition biblically historical and true.
Phoroneus the son of Inachus is also known as Cronus or by the Pelasgians and Phoenicians. His other recorded names are Saturn, Dorus, Ilus the Phoenician, Eshmun, Boreas and (some say) Jupiter. He is also styled Porphyrion, the Greek name for Melcander and the Phoenician Malchus the derivatives of the Eastern Milcom and Moloch. under his name Phoroneus he was the son of Inachus and Melua and the brother of Aegialeus and Io. His wife was Laodice, another name of Credo. He ruled at Argos and was the first to offer sacrifices to Hera. Traditional mythography states that he was the first to establish the market town of Argos, which originally was named Phoronicum, and from here, said to have ruled all the Pelponnese. This Cronus also had a great many offspring: Hades, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Zeus and particularly Poseidon(Cronius and Cronus-I) being his most important children, according to Bishop Cumberland. In the tradition of his father Cronus, Poseidon is surnamed Cronius and Cronus-II. He was also surnamed Saturnius or Neptunus in the tradition of his father's title name, according to the Romans. He was the father of Benthesicyme, Rhode(Island of Rhodes), Triton and Belus, who some say is the biblical Nimrod. There was also Lelex, the father of the Leleges of Caria(the Elishah of the Bible) and Polyphemus and Agenor. Through his surname Cronus, he is listed as the father of Pelasgus, Agenor, Iasus and Car(the father of the Carians of Asia Minor.). Agenor is our key figure in the identity of the Pelasgians.
Phoroneus was the brother of Ourea and Pelagus(this one being different from Pelasgus) the 'Raging-Sea'. He was the father of a multitude of sons and daughters. His most prominent offspring were: Cronus, Atlas, Rhea, Diane, Astarte, Argos and Io. The latter daughter is claimed by some to be the Egyptian Isis from which the travels of the Grecian Io seem to have been imitated. According to the Pelasgian's traditions, she was the sister of the above mentioned Cronus under his name of Phoroneus or Phoronis. Inachus(Ouranus) is mentioned as the son of Oceanus and Tethys. He was the father of Phoroneus according to the Pelasgian tradition, and the father of many offspring. Other than the slight discrepancy in the proper genealogical location of Oceanus and the somewhat questionable identity of Inachus, the genealogy holds up from this point on.
Greek mythographers must take into allowance the misunderstandings and distortions that have crept into the myths. Inachus was the King of Argos, the Land of Inachus. Mr. Smith states in his dictionary, that he was the leader who led the Argives or Argolites out of the mountains into the plains, and that he also led an Egyptian and Libyan colony to this land of Inachus, where he found and united his descendants--the scattered Pelasgians. From this unification onwards, his descendants were regarded as the Pelasgian Kings which ruled for nine generations up until the incoming Dorians from Egypt.
A glance at ancient Grecian geography will reveal that he gave his name to many places and locations, such as the Inachus River. In the genealogy he appears to be the grandfather of Poseidon(Sidon). Both appear to be associated with the water motif; one with a river and the other with the sea. If this placement is sound, then Mr. Higgins is correct in his estimation that Inachus, the mythic father of Phoroneus, is the son of Noahl.(9a) In relationship to the Poseidon-Sidon equation, this makes him Ham, son of Noah.
Ophion-III is another mythical name of Cronus. It seems to be some type of Dynastic title. Cronus is the third in the line of the Ophions. In this Pelasgian identity as Ophion-III, he is shown to be the progenitor of all the Pelasgi. The Pelasgian Creation myth demonstrates this conclusion. He was also given the title of Pelor, a name representative of his prolific nature as a 'prodigious-serpent'. The myth claims that the Pelasgi were born from his teeth.
In Hindu mythology the Prajapatis "Pulastya" is identified as one of the grandfathers of the tyrant King Ravana--a prominent evil figure in the Ramayana Epic of' India. He is apparently a duplicate version of the pivotal rebel patriarch Marici or Marichi, the father of the figure Prajaptis Kasyapa. This Kasyapa was the consort of the goddess Diti, who was the mother of the famous tribe of Maruts( the Biblical Amorites), who later appear as allies of the god Indra(our biblical Noah). The Puranic histories place Pulastya as one of six spiritual sons of Brahma, who born from his "ear".
His genealogy as gathered from Mani's Puranic Encyclopedia(9) is as follows:
2. PULASTYA w/wife Manini (Havirbhu) Other wives are
3. VISHRAVAS w/wife Kaikasi. Pratici,
4. RAVANA (Kink of Lanka). KUBERA
Marici is primarily an epic character. His genealogy is:
SUNDA w/wife Tataka, daughter of Suketu
MARICI w/wife Kala. SUBAHU
KASYAPA and PURNIMAN
Marici was also the 'mind-born' son of Brahma, yet in one of his duplicate characters, he was born from Sunda and Tataka, as the father of Kasyapa--also sometimes called Marici. Marichi as the Ramayana Epic relates, was once borne a Yakshasa, but was changed into a Rakshasa in a curse by the Sage Agastya. Visvamitra relates the story to RamaChandra in the epic:
"This question of Raghava's of limitless prowess caused the Mahatma to smile, and, in a harmonious tone, answered that hero, who as accompanied by Lakshmana, and said:-- 'O' Prince, I will relate the story to thee. The female demon has acquired her great strength by virtue of a boon which she received. In the past, a powerful Yaksha of the name of Suketu, who was virtuous but childless, undertook an extraordinary penance which gratified Brahma, who promised him a daughter named Tataka and conferred on her the strength of a thousand elephants; but the most illustrious Brahma did not grant him a son. When the daughter grew up, she was possessed both of youthful charm and beauty and her father gave her in marriage to Sunda, the son of Jumbha. After some time, the Yakshini gave birth to a son; his name was Marichi and he was exceedingly powerful; though born a Yaksha, he became a Rakshasa through a curse. O Rama, when the sage Agastya condemned Sunda to death by cursing him, Takaka, with her son, wished to devour the Sage. Seeing her running towards him, the blessed Sage Agastya cursed Marichi and said "become a cannibal with a hideous countenance. The blessed Agastya said, 'May thy beauty vanish and mayest thou become under this curse a terrible Rakshasi.' Then Tataka, transported with anger under this curse, began to destroy this sacred land because it was here that the Sage Agastya performed his yogic practices. " 0' Rama, thou must slay this wicked and impious demon, Takata, who ravages the land.' " (10)
The second generation is primarily identified through associations made in connection with Ouranus. The Greeks considered him the greatest of all the Heaven-Gods. The Hittites, like the Greeks, obtained their heaven-god Anus from the Sumerian-Babylonian traditions of Anu and Anshar. The etymological similarities are striking!: Ouranus, Anus, Anu and Anshar. The Hittite Anus appears to have a close etymological similarity with the Sumero-Babylonian Anu and Anshar. The etymology 'Our-ANUS' is temptingly close to Anus as well. But no matter what the case is etymologically, the myths of Ouranus, Anus and Anshar are almost identical.
The sons of these heaven gods are also the same and help to establish the second generation identifications. These Air-gods were the sons of the heaven-gods and are variations of the same tradition coming out of Mesopotamia. The Babylonian Air-God Anu corresponds to his earlier counterpart, the Sumerian Enlil. The sons of the Air-God Ea, Enki and Poseidon further affirm the identity of these Air-gods. The son of Sumerian Enlil was the Water-God of wisdom, Enki; Anu-II's son was Ea or Babylonian Enki/Nudimmud. The Greek God Poseidon, god of the Mediterranean Sea, was the son of Cronus. Enlil, Anu-II and Cronus were all the same deity; the son of Anu-I, Anshar and Ouranus. The comparisons of motifs and myths do help to identify the above pantheon figures. For instance, the Sumerian Enlil was designated "The Pleiades" and "The Seven Circles" and was traditionally known as the cause of the separation of Heaven and Earth. This motif is duplicated in the Grecian myths of Cronus, who also separated Ouranus(Heaven) and Gaea(Earth), by causing a division between them, over some issue. Cronus' divine numeral was seven because he was the leader of a septad colony out of Babylonia into Syria.
The castration of Ouranus by Cronus and that of Cronus by Zeus are primary interpretive key motifs for the identification of all the Sky-Heaven gods. The import of the castration Motif into the Greek mythology was by way of the Cadmean people out of Armenia, from the collapse of the old Hittite Empire previous to Greek adoption, it was a Hittite myth. Recent studies have now revealed that the Hittites acquired these traditions from their more ancient neighbors, the Hurrian or Horite people of the Near East.
In the Hittite myth 'The Kingship In Haven" the god Anus wars with a king named Alalis and banishes him to earth. Anus takes his throne and rules for nine years as the new
sovereignty of Heaven. He is therefore, now the new Heaven-god. He also wars with the hero figure Kumarbi. During the rule of Alalus, Kumarbi was a loyalist to Anus, but is shown later to have revolted under the tyrannical rule of Anus. Kumarbi thus battles against the new King's faction. Kumarbi wins over Anus, captures the old king and, like Cronus, castrates him.( 11) The first Hurrian Kumarbi myth describes a similar account identical to the Greek castration myth of Cronus by Zeus. The Hellenic version records Cronus' castration by his rebellious son Zeus, apparently in imitation of his father's castration of 0uranus( Zeus' grandfather). In the Hurrian version Kumarbi is said to have begat Teshub, the vizier of the gods. Teshub is recorded as having dethroned Kumarbi, becoming the forth king in succession, with the help of the Earth goddess Gaea or Rhea.
The "Song of Ullikummi", a parallel Typhon myth, has Kumarbi beget the "Stone Monster" named Ullikummi so as to do battle with Teshub. This creature is obviously a duplicate of Typhon. A war ensues and Teshub, failing his mission, flees to the mountain city of Kummiya.
His wife Hebat finds out what has happened and suggests to him that he go and council with the Great Ea. The god Anu wants to make Ea King instead of Teshub They then leave for Apsuma, the Home of the Gods, where Ea then takes a sickle and severs Ullikummi away from the shoulders of his resting place, Upelluris. The Stone Beast is rendered powerless and is thoroughly attacked and destroyed by the gods. Teshub and the gods are now victorious over Ullikummi. In this myth Ea resembles Zeus and the sickle that was used against Typhon, while his anti-type Cronus(his father) correspondingly used a flint knife on his father Ouranus. In the myth Ullikummi appears to be a duplicate of Typhon, who some say is the Iranian Zohak. The comparisons reveal other similarities. The Hittite Alalus seems to originate from the Sumerian Alilum, from which the Phoenicians also derived their Alilu or Elium. The Babylonian equivalent to this god is Apsu. Sense the last figure is obviously the Biblical patriarch Noah, shadowed under pagan symbolism, his son Ham must logically be Anshar, son of Apsu, the Babylonian duplicate of Sumerian Anu-I and the Grecean Ouranus. A comparative chart follows to help explain these identities.
HEBREW-BABYLONIAN -HURRIAN -HITTITE -PHOENICIAN -GREEK
Noah = Apsu = X = Alalus = Elium = Deucalion
Ham Anshar X Anus Anu-I Ouranus
Canaan Anu-II El-Kumarbi Kumarbas El-Enlil Cronus
Sidon Ea Teshub Enki
Jebus X Ullikummi Zeus
Shelah Marduk Bel-Marduk
[w/= War. d./= dethroned. c./= castrated]
The Hindu version of Cronus-Enlil-Anu seems to be Pulastya-Marici, a name that bears close resemblance to the Greek Pelasgus, father of the people of Thrace known as the Pelasgians. They were the compliments of the Minoans of Crete. Marici's surname Pulastya may only be the model or title used later by Poseidon(Kasyapa) in the naming his son Pelasgus. In the comparative chart, Marici can be identified with Canaan, son of Ham. through the combined effects of genealogical relationships. Consequently, Kasyapa, son of Marici is the biblical Sidon, son of Canaan, the Greek Poseidon. The genealogies correctly name Sidon-Visrava, the genetic link between Pulastya his father and Ravana his son. Vishrava is simply another Hindu name of Sidon and duplicate name of Kasyapa. This identification is verifiable by the Sea-God equation already mentioned. In another context it accounts for the nominal distinction between Ravana and the God Surya, the Sun, as two different versions of the biblical Shelah.
Vishravana, the son of Vishrava, is thus identified as the biblical Arphaxad(-II), a son of Sidon, who succeeded Sidon or Gudea as the Mesopotamian figure Ur-Ningursu of the myths, who resided at ancient Lagash.
The similarities of the names Vishrava and Vishravana suggests a close political tie between Sidon and his own son in the political characters of Gudea and his son at Lagash. In Greek tradition Pelasgus is said to have a son named Lycaon, referred to as a 'wolf " the ancestor of the Lycaonians of Southern Asia Minor. According to the Pulastya-Pelasgus identification, Lycaon may be Kasyapa-Sidon (son of Canaan). The light white complexions of the Pelasgian Vloch in Asia Minor suggest that Lycaon could be another version of Canaan's white son Sidon. Lycaon also resembles the devilish god Loki, the friend and betrayer of Odin in Teutonic mythology. Loki is another Teutonic version of Sidon. Another more probable identification is that Pelasgus and Lycaon are surnames duplicated to match their fathers and grandfathers.
One great-grandfather of Pelasgus was Pelagus. In the Pelasgian-Greek system Pelasgus is a son of Poseidon-Sidon the son of Cronus(Canaan), and the unidentified son of Kasyapa-Vishrava, son of Pulastya. To finally establish the identification of Pulastya with Marici, an identification of the sons Vishrava with Kasyapa, and their sons Ravana with Surya must come first. This is done in detail in the following chapters. Yet, for now, working back from Surya and following the comparisons in each lineage, the grandfathers Pulastya and Marici can be identified.
It is only from the very obvious identification of the Ramayana Epic's Ravana, with the Vedic and Puranic Surya-Martanda, and the Visrava-Kasyapa equation, that Pulastya is identified with Marici. The comparisons are therefore:
FATHER SON WIFE GRANDSON
1. Pulastya Vishrava Kaikasi Ravana
2. ? Pandu Kunti Karna
3. Marici Kasyapa Aditi Surya/Martanda
The following is a composite genealogy chart comparing the various traditions of the Hindus.
w/ (Mind-Born son.)
DNARMA = VISNU = JUMBHA = MAHAVISNU
w/wife Sraddha w/wife Lakshmi w. w.
s.KAMA (Sunda) (Brahma)(Brahma)
w/wife Rati w/wife Tataka
AniRudra ? s.MARICI(Pulastya)
w/wife Tamra w/wife Aditi w/wife Kaikasi
s.Kraunchi s.SURYA (Ravana-Radhya)
[------ = Mind-Born Sons.
____ = Genetic Sons.
w. = with
s. = son
d. = daughter]
The Biblical Identifications are:
BIBLICAL HINDU-A HINDU EPIC VEDIC & PURANIC
Noah Jumbha MahaVisnu Vishnu/Dharma
Ham Sunda ? ? Kama
Shem Brahma ? ? ?
Canaan Marici Pulastya ? ?
Sidon Kasyapa Visrava ? ?
Shelah Surya Ravana Martanda/ ?
In the myth ''Tolerance of the Javanese" Prabu-Abjasa had ruled prosperously for many years in his kingdom of Ngastina. In time he decided to abdicate his Throne to one of his sons and spent the rest of his last years in retreat. Yet, each one of his sons were tragically afflicted with some problem. His eldest son Drestarata was blind. His second son Pandu was an albino. His third son Widura-Vidura, was incurably lame. Of the three sons, Abjasa chose Pandu as his new successor, but with the understanding that the Throne would eventually revert to Drestarata's line. The conflict which would bring on the great Mahabarata war, began when many of the Ngastina subjects began to feel that Pandu, once enthroned, should be entitled to designate his own successor. This was the origin of the bitter feud between the sons of Drestarata and the Kuravas and the Pandavas, the sons of Pandu. This struggle could only be settled by the last great war called the 'Bratajuda-Djajabinangun' or the 'Mahabarata War'.(4)
20. KOTHAR /KOSHAR:
Kothar is the Syrian Ugaritic Patron God of Craftsmanship. His full name is Kothar-wa Khasa, originally Kautar(Syriac). Kosar(Ugarit) Kusar(Akkadian) and Kusor or Chusor(Phoenician and Greek). He is by traditional Mesopotamian scholars identified as the Syrian version of the Sumerian-Babylonian Enki/Ea. Mr. W. F. Albright identified him as the Egyptian God Ptah, the Lord of Memphis. His arts are said to have originated out of Egypt and Crete, his supposed earliest habitation. The arguments of Mr. Albright would then make Kothar the Syrian version of Ea/Enki, the Water God and the Asian version of the Egyptian Ptah, God of the Mediterranean Sea.(5)
Within the mythologies of the ancient world there is a common universal memory of an original eight-fold pantheon of gods. The Hindus and the Egyptians specifically list them as the 'Eight Original Gods of Khemenu' in their Book of the Dead. Associated with this octad of Gods is an assortment of elemental gods: Gods of Rain, Storms, Wind, Air, & etc. They run into hundreds of gods, yet they can all be resolved down into eight specific types, as well as eight particular gods: The Heaven-god, Sun-god, Air-god, Storm-god, Sea-god and the Shepherd-god. Other gods sometimes cause a confusion suggesting the list should be twelve gods. A water-god may appear with the sea-god or a heaven-god or sky-god may be duplicated and thus raise the number. Nevertheless, the number can be comfortably resolved down to eight. The octad pantheon in each of the mentioned traditions are listed and compared together as follows:
DEITY GREEK BABYLONIAN UGARITIC SUMERIAN HINDU
Water Deucalion Apsu Dagon Alulim Indra/Visnu
Heaven Ouranus Anshar - Anu-I Kama/Sunda
Air Cronus Anu-II - Enlil Pulastya/
Sea Poseidon Ea Kothar Enki Kasyapa
Sun Helious Utu Shunem Utu Surya
Storm - Mummu Baal Ishkur Brahma
Moon - Sin Yerikh Nanna Daksa
Sun-II - Marduk Bull-El Shulpae Martanda
In correlating the different Sea-gods of the Pantheons, especially the Hindu and Near Eastern, a concrete identity can be made between the Sun-gods Marduk, Martanda, Surya-II(Ravana). The most ancient Hindu god is MahaVishnu/Indra, the Storm and Thunder-god, who heads the Indian Pantheon. He is the father of Brahma, the second Incarnation of Vishnu. Brahma is shown as begetting Daksa, who begets Kaikasi, the mother of the infamous Surya-Ravana. His genealogy is:
The genealogical interconnections between the Near-East, the Greek, the Hindu and that between the Greek and Hebrew are Koshar-Ptah, Enki-Ea-Poseidon, and Poseidon-Sidon. "Now, the identification of the Grecian Poseidon with the biblical Sidon lies in the reconciliation of whose Sea-god controls the Mediterranean Sea and whether or not they are one and the same god. Each nation has a Sea-god. The Hindus have "The Enthroned-One" Kasyapa; the Sumerians and Akkadians have their Enthroned-One, who is surrounded by Enki/Ea; the Greeks have Poseidon, while the Egyptians have Ptah; the Syrians have their Kothar. The comparisons here dictate Sidon as the Hebrew counterpart, who colonized most of the Mediterranean coastal areas.
The Hindu Kasyapa is identified with Ea/Enki through the Semitic 'Karibu' and the Sanskrit 'Kasipu' etymological equations. Both words mean 'enthroned'. Through the Ea/Enki/Ptah equation of W. F. Albright, he can be identified with Poseidon. Like Kasyapa, Ea/Enki is depicted in Semitic icons as sitting on a Throne surrounded by fish, an image representing his control over the Seas.
Like Ea/Enki, Ptah is traditionally given the claim of control over all the Mediterranean Sea area, including the island of Captara, Egyptian Crete, which is the biblical Caphtar. Ptah is therefore the Egyptian version of Poseidon who is acclaimed "The Controller of the Mediterranean Sea".
Poseidon is also the biblical Sidon, son of Canaan, which can be seen from an analysis of Syrian geographical name clusters. The name Sidon was given to a port city along the Syrio-Phoenician coast in the proximity of ancient Tyre. North of this port is the port city of ancient Posidium directly due east of Crete(according to Ptolemy's geographical atlas). The two city names resemble each other because they are cognate names. One is in Greek while the other is in Semitic Canaanite. Their close proximity reveals their common identity. They are etymologically the same but with the addition of 'Po' in the name Posidium. The two names Posidium and Poseidon are the Grecianized versions of the Canaanite-Hebrew Sidon and Seidon.
The Syrian Ugaritic 'Kautar' or 'Kothar'(Kosar, Kusar, Chusor, Kusor) was also considered to be the only variant of the Egyptian Ptah. This is effected through their common Phoenician identification of 'Mochus'.(6) He was historically fond of Memphis and Crete from which Kothar is said to have brought his arts into Greece and Canaan. The Babylonians identify him as Ea the God of Wisdom and Crafts. Like Ea(Sumerian Enki), Kothar was associated with the 'Throne of Crete', upon which they say he sat just like Ptah of Memphis. Crete was also Ptah's seat, the land of is heritage. Kothar, according to Albright's combined text, is called, "Lord of the Memphis of Ptah--it is really his, Kaptara(Crete), the Throne on which he sits, Kekepta(Egypt), the land of his heritage."
Obviously, Crete was once a part of the Egyptian Empire, and Kothar-Ptah was its ruler. The comparative identity of Kasyapa, Kothar, Ptah, Ea/Enki, Poseidon and Sidon is now affirmed.
It was a well known practice in ancient times to name a place, city or other location after some national hero or patriarch. The reality of the port cities of Sidon and Posidium, named in this traditional way, should be no surprise. Neither then is it any surprise, that Poseidon is the Grecian equivalent to the Hebrew Patriarch Sidon; each culture naming a port city after this one personality.
Greek myth clearly remembers Sidon, the son of Canaan, in his character of Poseidon, the son of Cronus. The frequent mention of the Sidonians in Greek myths is just another bit of evidence for this identity; just as the Canaanites are for the Patriarch Canaan in the Greek form of Cronus. The Rev. Cumberland, in his Phoenician History, mentions a tradition that states another name of Poseidon in the feminine gender, which was Sidon! Now, it becomes evident that this principle of identification extends to all the rest of the genealogical personalities; something Mr. Albright seems to overlook. To start out, the Greek-Poseidon genealogy with the Biblical identifications run as follows:
BIBLICAL PATRIARCHES GREEK HEROS CONSORTS:
Noah Deucalion Pyrrh
Ham Uranos/Ouranus Ge/Gaea
Canaan Cronus Athene
Sidon Poseidon Aphrodite/Ino(Venus)
Shelah Bel/Belus ?
Nimrod Ninus ?
Poseidon-Sidon's father Cronus-Canaan is thus identified with the Pelasgian Phoroneus. The myths also state that this name is a title for Cronus.
The connection between Poseidon-Sidon and Ea/Enki, Kothar and Kasyapa opens up the rest of the genealogical relationships in each lineage. The sons of the Sea-Gods also help to further the identification of the characters. The associations of the fathers and sons are:
TRADITION SEA-GOD PORT CITY SONS:
Babylonian Ea (Ba-Bel-On) Marduk
Akkadian Enki - Asalluhe
Egyptian Ptah Caphtar, Memphis -
Hebrew Sidon Syrian Sidon Shelah
Greek Poseidon Syrian Posidium -
Syrian Kothar Kaphtar Bull-El
Hindu Vishnu-V - Surya-II
Ramayana Epic Visrava - Ravana
Vedic Kasyapa - Martanda
Mahabarata Epic Pandu - Karna
Japanese Izanagi - Susa-no-wo
The diffusion of the Sea-God motif appears to be coupled with the motif of "the Abandoned Child", usually depicted in a reed-basket set afloat down some sacred river. This motif also appears in such far off places as Japan. In the Japanese mythology of the Kojiki Chronicles,(7) the Leach-Child or Sun-Lad Susanowo finds a common identity with the Hindu Karna, the Sargon of Agade and the biblical Moses. The Mahabarata Epic Moses "Karna" is the son of the albino pygmy Pandu, previously discussed, who is the counterpart to the Egyptian pygmy god, Ptah. As a child, Karna was set afloat in a reed-basket, down the River Ganges. Here again is the water motif associated with the Sea God's son. The Japanese story is exactly the same. Susanowo, in the Japanese myths, takes after his father Izanagi, who is also a pygmy, as the "deformed-monster" and follows the story of Karna exactly. These two myths appear to derive from the same Sargonic legend from the Near East. The Japanese appear to have migrated from the Near East on their way through India and China to Japan.
The identifications made by Mr. Albright between the Sumerian-Babylonian Ea-Enki, the Egyptian Ptah and the Syrian Kothar with that of Dr. Pilkey's Greek Poseidon(8) completely conjoins the above Universal Sea-God traditions into a single cultural mythos. This identity equation consequently identifies each of the lineages of the different genealogies, including the Hebrew list. Enki's ancestral lineage is traditionally the same as that of Ea's. His father Enlil is therefore, the Babylonian Anu-Ii. This ultimately makes him Poseidon's father Cronus. The Grandfathers of Ea/Enki and Poseidon are respectfully Anu-I, Anshar and Ouranus/Uranos. The father of Anu-I is not directly mentioned in any association, yet, it may be inferenced from the other associations made that he is the Sumerian "Alulim"--the Babylonian Apsu.
The Poseidon-Sidon equation identification therefore, associates these different traditional lineages (Sumerian, Babylonian, Phoenician, Hebrew, etc.) as the same Sidonian genealogy as found in the Genesis account.